Georgia is generally considered the ‘cradle of wine’, as archaeologists have traced the world’s first known wine creation back to the people of the South Caucasus in 6,000BC.
When was wine invented?
- Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia (c. 6000 BC), Iran (c. 5000 BC), and Sicily (c. 4000 BC) although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic beverage being consumed earlier in China (c. 7000 BC).
- 1 When was wine first made?
- 2 Who first made wine?
- 3 When did humans first make wine?
- 4 Is 100 year old wine drinkable?
- 5 What was wine like 2000 years ago?
- 6 Who invented alcohol?
- 7 How did wine originate?
- 8 Who made wine in the Bible?
- 9 Who invented grape wine?
- 10 Which wine came first red or white?
- 11 What was the world like 9000 years ago?
- 12 Is the Titanic wine still good?
- 13 Can you drink 300 year old wine?
- 14 Can I drink 15 year old wine?
- 15 Oldest Evidence of Winemaking Discovered at 8,000-Year-Old Village
- 16 Where Did Wine Come From? The True Origin of Wine
- 17 ‘World’s oldest wine’ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia
- 18 Traditional methods
- 19 More on this story
- 20 The Complicated Question of Who Invented Wine
- 21 Wine Discovery History
- 22 Wine Myths and Fables
- 23 Dionysus
- 24 The Persian Woman
- 25 Let’s Just Say…
- 26 A Curious and Captivating History of Wine
- 27 When and Where Did Winemaking Begin?
- 28 Ancient World Wine vs. Old World Wine vs. New World Wine
- 29 History of Wine Timeline
- 30 Your Wine Has a Story
- 31 Where Does Wine Really Come From?
- 31.1 So what happened?
- 31.2 Pulling back the curtain
- 31.3 Is the wine world ready for an old, new world order?
- 32 Why Was Wine Invented and Who Discovered It?
- 33 Who Invented Wine?
- 34 The Evolution of Wine – A Brief History
- 35 Bottom Line
- 36 wine
- 37 History
- 38 Enology: scientific winemaking
- 39 The wine grape
When was wine first made?
The earliest remnants of wine were discovered in the site of Hajji Firuz Tepe, in the northern Zagros Mountains of Iran. The wine dated back to the Neolithic period (8500-4000 B.C.). Carbon dating confirmed the wine was from sometime between 5400-5000 B.C.
Who first made wine?
The Shulaveri-Shomu people (or “Shulaveri-Shomutepe Culture”) are thought to be the earliest people making wine in this area. This was during the Stone Age (neolithic period) when people used obsidian for tools, raised cattle and pigs, and most importantly, grew grapes.
When did humans first make wine?
The people living at Gadachrili Gora and a nearby village were the world’s earliest known vintners—producing wine on a large scale as early as 6,000 B.C., a time when prehistoric humans were still reliant on stone and bone tools.
Is 100 year old wine drinkable?
I’ve personally tried some really old wines—including a Port that was about a hundred years old—that were fantastic. Many if not most wines are made to be drunk more or less immediately, and they’ll never be better than on the day they’re released.
What was wine like 2000 years ago?
A typical wine from ancient times would have had a nose redolent of tree sap, giving way to a salty palate, and yielded a finish that could only charitably be compared to floor tile in a public restroom.
Who invented alcohol?
Fermented beverages existed in early Egyptian civilization, and there is evidence of an early alcoholic drink in China around 7000 B.C. In India, an alcoholic beverage called sura, distilled from rice, was in use between 3000 and 2000 B.C.
How did wine originate?
Georgia is generally considered the ‘cradle of wine’, as archaeologists have traced the world’s first known wine creation back to the people of the South Caucasus in 6,000BC. These early Georgians discovered grape juice could be turned into wine by burying it underground for the winter.
Who made wine in the Bible?
After the account of the great flood, the biblical Noah is said to have cultivated a vineyard, made wine, and become intoxicated. Thus, the discovery of fermentation is traditionally attributed to Noah because this is the first time alcohol appears in the Bible.
Who invented grape wine?
Previously, the earliest evidence of grape wine-making had been found in the Zagros Mountains of Iran and dated to 5,400-5,000 BC. In 2011, a wine press and fermentation jars from about 6,000 years ago were found in a cave in Armenia.
Which wine came first red or white?
Red, White, or Rosé? Probably red. Archeological evidence uncovered in Georgia shows that wine making had become a major part of human culture at least as far back as 6,000 BCE and the oldest wine making facility yet discovered was from 2,000 BCE Armenia.
What was the world like 9000 years ago?
9,000 years ago: large first fish fermentation in southern Sweden. 9,000 years ago: Mehrgarh was Founded which is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.
Is the Titanic wine still good?
If you found a bottle of wine on the Titanic wreck, and the bottle still had a good seal, it would probably be safe to drink. But it would taste horrible. Wine doesn’t last forever, even in good storage conditions. A few wines can still be good after, say 25 years, but most are not good for that long.
Can you drink 300 year old wine?
That advanced age makes these two bottles the oldest ever offered for sale by Christie’s, though they’re still far from the oldest unopened bottles of wine in the world. The Speyer wine is probably still safe to drink, though scientists say it likely wouldn’t taste good.
Can I drink 15 year old wine?
The best way to enjoy your wine fresh is to drink it shortly after you purchase it. However, you can still enjoy unopened wine about 1–5 years after the expiration date, while leftover wine can be enjoyed 1–5 days after it has been opened, depending on the type of wine.
Oldest Evidence of Winemaking Discovered at 8,000-Year-Old Village
A cluster of circular, mud-brick cottages rises from a verdant, rich river valley on a little hill less than 20 miles south of Tbilisi, Georgia, and is home to a tiny community of people. Gadachrili Gora is the name of the mound, and the Stone Age farmers who lived here 8,000 years ago were passionate about grapes: It is believed that the area’s forested hillsides were previously covered with grapevines, based from pollen samples taken from the site. Their rough pottery is embellished with bunches of the fruit.
6,000 B.C., the people living in Gadachrili Gora and a nearby settlement are said to have been the world’s first known vintners, having begun producing wine on a wide scale as early as 6,000 B.C., when ancient humans were still dependant on stone and bone tools for survival.
Several other samples were discovered at Shulaveri Gora, a Stone Age hamlet site about a mile and a half from Gadachrili that had been partially excavated in the 1960s.
As a result of this chemical analysis, which was conducted in conjunction with grape decorations painted on the jars and abundant grape pollen found in the site’s fine soil, as well as radiocarbon dates from 5,800 B.C.
- In fact, a thousand years ago, tipplers at a Chinese site called Jiahuwere making fermented beverages from a mixture of grains and wild fruit.
- Stephen Batiuk, an archaeologist at the University of Toronto, and Mindia Jalabdze, an archaeologist at the Georgian National Museum, co-directed the joint expedition.
- Early winemakers employed pine resin or herbs to keep wine from rotting or to mask bad flavors, just like current wine producers use sulfites to prevent wine from spoiling or to mask unpleasant tastes.
- “It doesn’t appear to have had any tree resin added to it, making it the world’s first pure wine,” McGovern claims.
- As a result of this discovery, we have gained fresh insight into the Neolithic, a critical time in human history during which humans were first learning to farm, settling down, and domesticating crops and animals.
- The process is known as the Neolithic Revolution.
- “They’re figuring out horticultural ways, such as how to transplant it and how to generate it,” McGovern says of the researchers.
It boasts more than 500 different local grape types, which indicates that people have been breeding and farming grapes in this area for a long time.
Director of the Georgian National Museum David Lordkipanidze believes the region’s wine culture has a long history and has profound historical origins.
Stone Age humans led complicated, full lives, according to archaeologist Patrick Hunt of Stanford University.
“Wine fermentation is not a survival need,” says the author.
Even in the transitional Neolithic, “there is significantly higher intelligence than we had any idea about,” says the researcher.
And according to Batiuk, they haven’t even gotten to the lowest, oldest levels of the site yet.
It’s possible, he thinks, that they’ll be able to push it even further back. “We’re filling in the gaps in the history of wine, this beverage that has played such an important role in so many cultures—indeed, in the development of western civilization.”
Where Did Wine Come From? The True Origin of Wine
A cluster of circular, mud-brick cottages emerges from a lush, rich river valley on a little elevation less than 20 miles south of the Georgian capital of Tbilisi. 8,000 years ago, the Stone Age farmers who resided on this mound were avid grape growers: Gadachrili Gora is the name of the mound. It is believed that the area’s forested hillsides were previously covered with grapevines, based from pollen samples taken from the site. Their rough pottery is painted with clusters of the fruit. An multinational team of archaeologists has released an article in the journal PNAS today that demonstrates definitely what all of those grapes were used for.
- When the crew was excavating the overlapping circular buildings at the site, they discovered shattered pottery, including the rounded bottoms of enormous jars, imbedded in the flooring of the village homes.
- The hunt for the origins of winemaking is detailed in “Ghost of the Vine,” which is available on DVD.
- As a result of this chemical analysis, which was conducted in conjunction with grape decorations painted on the jars and abundant grape pollen in the site’s fine soil, as well as radiocarbon dates dating from 5,800 B.C.
- In fact, a thousand years ago, tipplers at a Chinese location called Jiahuwere creating fermented drinks from a combination of cereals and wild fruit.
According to Stephen Batiuk, an archaeologist at the University of Toronto, who co-directed the joint expedition with Mindia Jalabdze of the Georgian National Museum, “They were pressing it in cooler environments, fermenting it, and then pouring it into smaller jugs and transporting it to the villages when it was ready to drink.” Early winemakers employed pine resin or herbs to keep wine from rotting or to mask bad flavors, just like current wine producers use sulfites to prevent wine from spoiling or to mask disagreeable flavors.
It was discovered that there were no such residues in McGovern’s chemical study, indicating that the wines were early winemaking experiments and that they were created and eaten in season before they had a chance to become vinegary.
We now have more information on the Neolithic period, which was a critical moment in human history when humans were first learning to farm, settling down and domesticating crops and animals.
in Anatolia, a few hundred kilometers west of Gadachrili, the slow process known as the Neolithic Revolution got under way.
According to McGovern, “they’re figuring out horticultural procedures, such as the best way to transplant it and how to grow it.” As one observer put it, “It demonstrates exactly how innovative our species is.” In the Caucasus Mountains, not far from where the Neolithic Revolution began, Georgia is still enthralled with wine 8,000 years after it was first discovered.
- Vineyards cling to the collapsing Soviet-era residential complexes even in the heart of Tbilisi’s busy city.
- Stone Age people led sophisticated, full lives, according to archaeologist Patrick Hunt of Stanford University.
- It is not necessary to ferment wine to survive.
- And, according to Batiuk, they haven’t yet reached the site’s lowest and oldest strata.
It’s possible, he thinks, that they’ll be able to move it even further back. The tale of wine, this beverage that is so important to so many cultures—indeed, to western civilisation as a whole—is being fleshed out by the team.
Where is The True Origin of Wine?
A cluster of circular, mud-brick cottages emerges from a verdant, rich river valley on a little elevation less than 20 miles south of Tbilisi, Georgia. Gadachrili Gora is the name of the mound, and the Stone Age farmers who lived here 8,000 years ago were avid grape growers: It is believed that the area’s forested hillsides were previously covered with grapevines, based on pollen samples taken from the location. Their rough pottery is embellished with bunches of grapes. An multinational team of archaeologists has revealed the purpose of all those grapes in an article published today in the journal PNAS.
Breaking pottery, including the round bottoms of big jars, was found lodged in the flooring of the village buildings when the crew excavated their overlapping circular structures.
(For additional information on the hunt for the origins of winemaking, see “Ghost of the Vine.”) Upon further examination of the artifacts by archaeologist Patrick McGovern of the University of Pennsylvania, he discovered tartaric acid, a chemical “fingerprint” that indicates that wine leftovers were present in shards of pottery from both locations.
- to 6,000 B.C., the chemical study reveals that the inhabitants at Gadachrili Gora were the world’s first winemakers.
- They believe that the wine was created in the neighboring hills, close to where the grapes were harvested, because there were few grape seeds or stems retained in the village’s soil.
- “They were pressing it in cooler environments, fermenting it, and then pouring it into smaller jugs and transporting it to the villages when it was ready to drink,” says Batiuk.
- It was discovered that there were no such remnants in McGovern’s chemical study, indicating that the wines were early winemaking experiments and that they were prepared and eaten before they had a chance to develop vinegary.
- “Perhaps they hadn’t learned yet that tree resins were beneficial.” As a result of this discovery, we have gained fresh insights into the Neolithic, a critical time in human history during which humans were first learning to farm, settling down, and domesticating crops and animals.
Increasing evidence indicates that people’s thoughts quickly turned to alcohol after being exposed to the dangers of tobacco: In Gadachrili, barely a few thousand years after the first wild grasses were tamed, the inhabitants discovered the skill of fermentation and were reportedly working on developing, breeding, and harvesting Vitis vinifera, the European grape.
“It only goes to demonstrate how ingenious the human species is,” says the author.
It boasts more than 500 local grape types, which indicates that people have been breeding and farming grapes in this area for a long time.
David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum, claims the region’s wine culture has “deep historical roots.” “In Georgia, large jars resembling Neolithic pots are being used to brew wine today.” According to Patrick Hunt, an archaeologist at Stanford University, the findings reveal that Stone Age individuals led complicated, multifaceted lives, with interests and worries that are recognizable to us today.
“Wine fermentation is not a necessary for living.” “It demonstrates that human beings were about more than just utilitarian activities back then,” explains Hunt.
And according to Batiuk, they have not yet reached the lowest and oldest levels of the site.
It’s possible, he thinks, that they’ll be able to push it back even more. “We’re filling in the gaps in the history of wine, this beverage that has played such an important role in so many cultures—indeed, in the development of Western civilization.”
Wine in 6,000 BC
Organic chemicals identified in ancient Georgian pottery have been linked to the production of wine in a region in the Southern Caucasus. The earthenware pots, known as Kvevri (or Qvevri), may still be found in use in Georgian winemaking today. This offer expires on January 31! From now through the end of January, you may save money by purchasing only one book on wine and one digital course. Read on to find out more
Wild Vines in Southeastern Anatolia
José Vouillimoz (a grape “ampelologist”) discovered a location in Turkey where wild grape vines are genetically similar to farmed grape vines via research into grape genetics. This study lends credence to the hypothesis that a convergence zone between cultivated and wild vines might have served as the site of the first winemaking operations.
A Relic Winery Unearthed in Armenia
The earliest known winery (4,100 BC) may be found in a collection of caverns outside the Armenian town of Areni, which is located near the border with Turkey. The community is still well-known for its winemaking, and it produces red wines from a grape grown in the area that goes by the name of Areni. Areni is estimated to be hundreds of years old, and it is still available for consumption today! To the civilizations of Greece and Phoenicia we owe our understanding of the dispersal of wine grapes across European history.
Ancient Wine Influencers: The Phoenicians and Greeks
Areni, an Armenian town south of Yerevan, is home to the world’s oldest known winery, which dates back to 4,100 BC. There is still a strong winemaking tradition in the hamlet which produces red wines from a grape known as Areni, which is grown in the surrounding area. You may still drink Areni today, despite the fact that it is said to be centuries old! To the civilizations of Greece and Phoenicia we owe our understanding of the dispersal of wine grapes across Europe.
Drink New Wines From Old Grapes
If you enjoy wine, make an effort to explore various varieties; this will help to broaden your palate. This is why we’ve put up a basic collection of more than 100 grape types that you might like trying! I hope you enjoyed this look into the history of wine and that you would go at the collection below. More Information on Grapes
‘World’s oldest wine’ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia
AFP is the source of this image. Caption for the image Some of the Neolithic jars were adorned with grape designs. 8,000-year-old pottery shards, according to scientists, have shown the world’s earliest evidence of grape wine production. The pottery jars, which contained residual wine chemicals, were discovered at two locations south of the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, according to the experts. Some of the jars included graphics of grape clusters and a dancing figure on the outside. Previously, the earliest evidence of wine-making had been discovered in north-western Iran, in pottery that had been there for almost 7,000 years.
For thousands of years, wine has been the centre of religious cults, pharmacopoeias, cuisines, economics, and social life in the ancient Near East. It has also been the focus of mind-altering substances and highly prized commodities.”
The ceramic jars were discovered in two Neolithic settlements, called Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveris Gora, some 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Tbilisi, according to the researchers. Gadachrili Gora is a hamlet in the Gadachrili region of Georgia. Eight jars with telltale chemical evidence of wine were unearthed, the oldest of which dates back to around 5,980 BC. According to David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum, who was involved in the research, large jars known as qvevri, which are comparable to the ancient ones, are being used for winemaking in Georgia today.
The world’s first non-grape based wine is believed to be a fermented alcoholic beverage made from rice, honey, and fruit that was discovered in China around 7,000 BC and dates back to that time period.
When addressing this issue, there are a number of factors that must be considered, and many nations will contribute to the history of wine as a whole, having claimed to have originated certain parts throughout its existence. Many people are surprised to learn that China is considered to be the birthplace of wine; at the very least, the concept of a grape-based fermented drink is believed to have originated there around 7,000 BC, approximately 1,000 years before Georgia and more than 7,500 years before the birth of Champagne*.
The most important thing to remember about the origin of wine is that, no, it did not take place in France, and, wrong again, it did not take place in Italy either!
Many famous works of art, like Twelfth-night (The King Drinks) 1634-40 and The Last Supper 1495–1498, depict wine.
In addition, many of us would have heard that wine is a gift from the gods and thatJesus Christ himself was capable of turning water into wine.
- The earliest evidence of wine (fermentation) production dates back to China around 8,000 B.C.
- The first earthenware containers used for storing wine date back to 6,000 B.C.
- The earliest recorded winery dates back to Armenia 4,100 B.C.
- The first use of glass bottles for wines dates back to the 17th century
- And the oldest recorded winery dates back to Armenia 4,100 B.C.
Throughout this post, I wanted to take a brief look at some sparkling wines from Georgia, a nation that I have personally visited and which has one of the oldest and, in many people’s opinion, most important wine histories in the world – and that is Georgia. Among the wineries I’d want to visit is Badagoni, which is as follows: ” Georgia is the location where man first discovered and domesticated the grape. Several pieces of archaeological evidence imply that winemaking may have originated in Georgia more than 8,000 years ago, so demonstrating that it is in fact the cradle of winemaking.
From as early as the VIII century, winemaking was taught as a formal academic discipline here.
They are quite proud of the fact that they have vines in each and every micro-zone of the Kakheti wine region, allowing them to make wines of the greatest quality that are representative of the region.
Georgian Sparkling Wines from Badagoni We were able to sample three of their award-winning wines: (Silver Medal Winners Creamy) Badagoni Brut (Silver Medal Winners Creamy): A little dryness comes through at first, followed by a yellow fruit or mango flavor.
If you’re serving rich dessert items, this wine would be a terrific choice.” * Dom Perignon is credited with being the first to discover Champagne, however Christopher Merret is also credited with being the first to produce sparkling wine (he made the deliberate addition of sugar for the production of sparkling wine).
The Complicated Question of Who Invented Wine
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Wine Discovery History
Here are a handful of the most significant events in the lengthy history of wine:
- Scientists have uncovered fossilized grape seeds that are 66 million years old, while archeologists have unearthed evidence of winemaking in Tbilisi, Georgia, that dates back roughly 8,000 years to the Bronze Age. They discovered crockery that was painted with fruit, and pollen research revealed indications of grape growing. Wine jars dating back to the ancient civilization of Hajji Firuz Tepe in modern-day Iran are considered to be among the earliest archaeological evidence of wine production. There have been no written records regarding vineyards or wine manufacturing for about 5,000 years, but the Hajji Firuz Tepe wine jar, together with a wine press, which has been identified as a wine press because of its tartaric crystal and tannin residue, have been dated to 6000 B.C. Making wine has been passed down via families and apprenticeships for millennia
- Historians think that the Phoenicians were the ones who brought their wine-making skills to ancient Greece and Italy. It is believed that Christian monks are responsible for France’s position as one of the world’s greatest wine-producing countries. In fact, it was their precise records of grape varietals, terroir, and growing practices that allowed France to improve and enhance its winemaking talents.
Wine Myths and Fables
In Tbilisi, Georgia, archaeologists unearthed evidence of winemaking that took place roughly 8,000 years ago, according to scientists who have dated fossilized grape seeds back to 66 million years. A fruit-decorated pottery vessel was discovered, and pollen research revealed indications of grape farming. Wine jars dating back to the ancient civilization of Hajji Firuz Tepe in modern-day Iran are considered to be among the earliest archaeological evidence of wine manufacturing. There have been no written records regarding vineyards or wine manufacturing for about 5,000 years, but the Hajji Firuz Tepe wine jar, together with a wine press, which is known to be a wine press because of its tartaric crystal and tannin residue, have been dated to 6000 B.C.
It is believed that Christian monks were responsible for France’s position as one of the world’s greatest wine-producing nations.
According to most accounts, this is the most well-known of the wine legends. When Dionysus, a son of Zeus and Semele, lived among the nymphs on the ancient Mount Nysa, according to Greek mythology, he came up with the idea of making wine. The fact that Dionysus is commonly referred to as the “God of Wine” is one of the reasons behind this.
The Persian Woman
According to most accounts, this is the most well-known of the wine-related legends. When Dionysus, a son of Zeus and Semele, lived among the nymphs on the ancient Mount Nysa, according to Greek mythology, he came up with the idea for wine. The fact that Dionysus is frequently referred to as the “God of Wine” is one of the reasons behind this.
A Persian Princess had found herself in disfavor with the King of Persia after a series of unfortunate events. When she learned of this, she attempted to commit herself by ingesting a container of rotting grapes that she had brought with her. Instead of dying, she discovered that she was feeling better and acting significantly happier. After a while, she slept asleep, but when she awoke, she discovered that the King had been impressed with her new attitude to the point that he had welcomed her back into his good graces.
A Persian woman became ill with a headache and drank from a jar she used to hold grapes to alleviate her symptoms. Due to the fermented state of the grapes in the jar, the woman became inebriated and passed out. Her headache was vanished by the time she awoke.
Let’s Just Say…
For the sake of argument, let’s simply claim that the entire globe developed wine because no two legends will ever agree on who did it first. Despite the fact that it is possible to carbon date the earliest wine bottles and that fresh archaeological finds involving wine are being unearthed, there is simply no method to prove who was the first to develop wine.
In order to express gratitude to the Persian Princess, Dionysus, or anyone you want, lift your glass of wine and make a nod to them, or to whomever you choose, next time you are sipping your favorite wine. LoveToKnow Media was founded in the year 2022. All intellectual property rights are retained.
A Curious and Captivating History of Wine
Whether you’re a history geek or not, you have to acknowledge that understanding the narrative behind what you eat, drink, wear, and use — and that includes wine — is a remarkable experience. Making the connection between where it all began and where it is now might help you put things into perspective. Making the connection between the world’s first wine grape and your most recent bottle of wine adds another level to the experience and allows you to appreciate and enjoy it more fully. Take this into consideration as we bring you through the history of wine, including where it started (hint: it wasn’t France) and how different civilizations have made and consumed it throughout history.
When and Where Did Winemaking Begin?
There’s no denying that the countries of France, Italy, and Spain are linked with wine production and culture. However, France is perhaps the country that can lay claim to the world’s most renowned wine appellations (also known as wine regions), including Bordeaux, which is known as the “wine capital of the world.” France is also the birthplace of some of the world’s most popular grape varietals and wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Champagne, Pinot Noir, and Sauvignon Blanc.
China, according to archeological evidence, was the first country to create wine approximately 7000 BCE.
Armenia, in fact, is home to the world’s oldest vineyard (as well as the world’s oldest shoe!) according to academics.
Clearly, there is a lot more to wine than you may have previously realized.
Ancient World Wine vs. Old World Wine vs. New World Wine
Understanding a few key terms is useful when discussing the history of wine, including the distinctions between “Ancient World” wines, “Old World” wines, and “New World” wines, to name a few examples. More than anything, these wine words refer to the region in which they are used.
Ancient World Wine
As previously said, the most well-known wine areas today are not the places where wine was first produced. These historic wine regions — which include China, Armenia, Iran, and Egypt — are where the world’s first winemakers created procedures for fermenting grape juice into alcohol, which they passed on to their descendants.
Old World Wine
Old World wine is produced in traditional wine regions around Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East, which are also the places where viniculture (wine production) first gained popularity and developed. The grapevine used in the creation of Old World wine is known as Vitis vinifera, and it is a common variety. This grape variety is indigenous to the Mediterranean region of the world.
New World Wine
Wine from the New World can originate from almost any other place that isn’t regarded to be ancient or old. New World wine areas include places like Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, and Canada, to name a few. In addition to these countries, there is the United States, with the states of California, Oregon, and Washington being the most well-known wine-producing regions.
TheVitis viniferawine grape is also used in the manufacture of Old World wines, although numerous changes have been made to enable it grow well in the various regions of the world.
History of Wine Timeline
Whether it was thousands of years ago or only a few days ago, the history of any sort of wine begins with the grapes being picked, crushed, and fermented, and the trip continues until the wine is finished. The fermentation process is the most important step, as it is this process that transforms crushed grapes (or grape juice) into wine and other beverages. The history of wine is so extensive that we couldn’t possibly cover every single place, discovery, or development that has occurred throughout the centuries.
Here’s a short rundown of wine’s global travels, as well as how different civilizations have made and drank it throughout history.
Doctor Patrick McGovern, the world’s best wine scientist and anthropologist, claims that the world’s first scientifically verified alcoholic beverage — including wine — was discovered at Jiahu in the Chinese province of Henan in the year 3000 BC. A fermented drink consisting of wild grapes (including the kinds Vitis amurensis and Vitis thunbergiigrape varietals), rice, honey, and hawthorn fruit was created and stored in clay jars from the Early Neolithic Period during this time period. McGovern and his colleagues came to the conclusion that holding sweet fruit with yeast on its skins within these jars provides evidence of how the liquid was fermented, according to the findings.
The data reveals that these alcoholic beverages were used during funeral and religious rites, whatever the situation may be.
In 2016, a team of experts discovered the world’s oldest vineyard in a cave in the Armenian highlands, which they believe to be thousands of years old. In this cave, archaeologists discovered up a drinking bowl and cup, a grape press, and fermentation jars, among other things. It was also confirmed that the wine grapes used were Vitis vinifera, which is the same variety of grape that is used to make most commercial wines today. Because of this, scientists predict that the end product will be equivalent to an unfiltered red wine with a Merlot flavor profile, according to the researchers.
Because that specific cave was previously a prominent cemetery location, experts believe that the wine from Armenia was most likely utilized for funeral rites.
Ancient Egypt was the first civilization to produce wine from red grapes, and it was the first civilization to do so. The amphorae, which are clay jars with a small neck and two handles, were used to keep this ancient wine for storage. Despite the fact that Egypt currently produces very little wine, the country’s past is rich in the art of winemaking (and wine drinking). The act of plucking grapes from the vine, crushing them, and depositing them in amphoras to ferment is shown on the walls of ancient tombs.
In ancient times, wine was utilized in a variety of rites (including funerals) and for medical purposes, according to archaeological discoveries.
Despite the fact that red wine was the most often produced variety of wine in this region, amphorae recovered in Tutankhamun’s tomb provide the first evidence of white wine production in Egypt.
1200 B.C.-539 B.C.
This increasingly popular beverage (and even grapevines themselves) were first transported across the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians, who established trade routes that extended from Greece to Italy and territories throughout modern-day Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, and Syria. Following interaction with Jewish people during their journeys, the Phoenicians adopted the use of wine in religious rites as a result of their encounter. The first recorded reference of wine in the Bible is found in the book of Genesis, when Noah drinks it after surviving the Great Flood.
Because of the Phoenicians, the ancient Greeks were able to begin drinking wine and utilizing it as a symbol for religion, trade, and health, among other things. Wine was so revered in Ancient Greece that it was given its own deity, Dionysus, to honor the drink. Wicker baskets were loaded with freshly gathered grapes, which were then crushed before being placed in pithoi, which were enormous clay jars resembling Egyptian amphoras in shape. It was in these jars that the fermenting process took place.
Greeks transported grapevines in the same way that the Phoenicians did.
200 B.C.-100 B.C.
The Romans, following in the footsteps of the Greeks, developed their own deity of wine, Bacchus. (This is the origin of the term “bacchanalian,” which refers to intoxicated revelry.) Using barrels and other techniques, the Romans improved upon the Greek method of viniculture, allowing them to produce more at a faster rate and at a lesser cost. Using a torculum (wine press) to crush the grapes and a colander-like instrument to separate the grape juice from the skins, for example, was standard practice in Roman wine manufacturing.
Due to the fact that wine was a part of everyday life for the Romans, unlike the pharaohs of Egypt, this so-called “drink of the gods” was widely accessible to both the affluent and the poor.
As the Roman empire expanded over Europe, it began to cultivate grapevines in nations such as modern-day France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and Portugal, among others.
Following Constantine the Great’s reign (306-337), the Catholic Church and Christianity ascended to the position of dominant religious power in the Roman Empire. And with it, wine gained prominence in religious ceremonies, particularly during the celebration of the Eucharist (the consecration of the bread and wine) (also known as communion). This tradition is observed at the Catholic mass to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus Christ and his apostles, with the wine symbolizing the blood of Jesus on the table.
While grape juice is a typical replacement, it is not required.) It is another another example of the long-lasting impact that wine has had on people, not just in terms of social enjoyment, but also in terms of religious practice.
“In 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on the ocean blue,” we’ve all heard the chant. When Christopher Columbus first set sail from Spain on one of his four journeys, he and his crew were surprised to discover the Americas on their journey. In spite of the fact that his “discovery” of the New World was everything but, it did herald the beginning of an age of North and South American exploration (as well as colonialism). Spanish conquistadors invaded Mexico and Brazil on their transatlantic voyages in the 16th century, bringing with them the practice of European grape planting.
Chile’s first winery was founded by Spanish missionaries in the 16th century (not surprising since wine was a mainstay of the Catholic Church by then).
Spanish missionary Junipero Serra moved to San Diego, California, in the late 18th century, when he founded the state’s first mission and the world’s first known vineyard. As the friar and his fellow monks established missions around the state, they continued to cultivate the Mission grape, a cultivar ofVitis vinifera from Spain that is still grown in California. A sweet white wine was created from this grape by fermenting the juice without the skins; a dry and sweet red wine was formed by fermenting the liquid with the skins on; and a sweet fortified wine was made from this grape by adding sugar to the juice.
In the years that followed, additional European residents in Los Angeles expanded their vineyards by planting many European grape types.
James Busby, a Scottish-born, British-raised, and Australian-based viticulturist and writer who lived in Australia in the early nineteenth century, heralded the beginning of a new age for wine producing in the geographical region of Oceania. In the course of his extensive study and cross-continental trip between Australia and Europe, he obtained grapevine cuttings from Europe and transplanted them into Australian vines. Eventually, he sent some of these cuttings from Australia to New Zealand, where he planted the country’s first vineyard in the year 1836.
It’s no surprise that he’s referred to as “the father of the Australian wine business.”
1980s to Today
Finally, we’ll come full circle and finish our journey through the history of wine just where we started: in China. During the late 1980s, the Chinese economy had a resurgence, and the country expanded to become one of the world’s greatest consumers and producers of wine. Even while rice wine continues to be the most popular alcoholic beverage in the country, as it has since its inception, grape wine has gained in popularity and recognition. In recent years, however, the overall volume of wine produced in China has decreased dramatically.
Whatever happens next in this tale, it’s evident that wine will be around for a long time. The Antarctic continent, in fact, is the only continent on the earth where vineyards do not exist.
Your Wine Has a Story
Knowing how different civilizations have made and used wine throughout history will help you enjoy your wine drinking experience even more. Wine is considerably more than just fermented grapes in a glass, as evidenced by the discovery of the world’s first winery in Armenia, the Phoenicians’ worldwide effect on winemaking, the social and spiritual components of wine in Greco-Roman society, and many other examples. With each drink, you’ll be reminded of a historical lesson that you may enjoy at your leisure.
Where Does Wine Really Come From?
When you think of wine, the first thing that springs to mind is probably one of the world’s great wine regions, such as Bordeaux, Napa, or Champagne. Alternatively, grapes such as Pinot Noir, Malbec, Riesling, and Cabernet Sauvignon are being grown in the Middle East, Western Asia, and Eastern Europe, and winemakers in these regions are proud to point out that they represent the oldest wine-producing regions on the planet, and that they are producing wines that are unlike anything else on the planet.At a recent event hosted by Smithsonian Associates in Washington, DC, winemakers and wine historians discussed who could legitimately claim to be the world’s first wine Researchers have linked the beginnings of domesticated grapes to a region near the headwaters of Turkey’s Tigris River, despite the fact that it is difficult to pinpoint exactly where the first fermented grape beverage was produced.
Fortunately, near the churning headwaters of the Tigris, McGovern and Dr.
These early wines provided the foundation of the wine we enjoy today. Evidence indicates that it wasn’t until 600 B.C. when this occurred. It was in this manner that the Etruscans transported their first wine to France in amphorae vessels.
So what happened?
Since the beginning of time, winemaking has been an important aspect of life and culture in this region of the world. We do not, on the other hand, speak with the same respect about locations such as Kakheti in Georgia, Central Anatolia in Turkey, or the Bekka Valley in Lebanon as we do about Bordeaux.
If the rise of interest in natural wines and offbeat winemaking techniques are any indication, maybe you’ll soon see Georgia and Lebanon featured as prominently as Bordeaux on wine lists.
Each region had a unique set of circumstances that contributed to the slowing down of the wine industry. As a result of the ancient Ottoman Empire’s prohibition on alcohol, Turkey has developed a society with tight alcohol prohibitions in comparison to its Western neighbors, and today, an estimated 83 percent of Turks still identify as teetotalers. Lebanon was ravaged by a civil war that lasted from 1975 to 1990, making labor in the fields exceedingly risky and destroying many ancient vineyards, many of which have just lately been restored.
“The Soviets were more concerned with quantity than with quality,” Uzunashvili explains.
The Soviet leadership imposed additional output quotas and stifled technological advancement.
Pulling back the curtain
Producers wish to promote wines created from distinctive local grapes that have been neglected in more well-known winemaking locations in the future, according to their vision.
Rkatsiteli is so ingrained in the region’s culture that local religious lore contends it was the first vine planted by Noah after the biblical flood.
In Georgia, for example, the town of Saperavi is a source of national pride. It’s one of the few teinturier grapes, which means that both the meat and the skin of the grape are red, that is employed in single-varietal production. Even though it contributes for the great bulk of the country’s red-wine output, it is only sometimes seen outside of the region, with the exception of a few scattered plantings in New York’s Finger Lakes region. In the Soviet Union, Rkatsiteli, an acidic white variety, was the most regularly planted grape until 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev began paying farmers to uproot their vines as part of a statewide drive to combat alcoholism.
- Researchers have not yet uncovered a genetic “parent” grape that can be traced back to a certain variety.
- Georgian Qvevri has been laid to rest / Photograph courtesy Georgian wines are made from grapes that are grown in Georgia.
- This amphora differs significantly from other conventional forms in that the qvevri are hidden beneath the surface of the vessel, allowing for better temperature regulation.
- With its honey and apricot aromas, the grape lends itself to the production of the country’s distinctive sweet wines, while companies such as Highland Cellars also offer notable dry 100-percent Voskehat bottlings that are worth seeking out.
- Although it is poorly recognized outside of Armenia, the grape is being exploited by producers like asKataroto to produce high-quality dry red wines of distinction.
- Yacoubian-Hobbs is a partnership between Vahe and Viken Yacoubian and winemaker Paul Hobbs.
- Semina Consulting executive director Vahe Keushguerian points out that just approximately 10 percent of Armenian grapes are grafted, as the country was spared from the phylloxera disease that virtually wiped out European wine production in the late nineteenth century.
- Despite this, Château Musarin the Bekaa Valley, which was created in 1930 and has been producing high-quality wines for decades, continues to thrive.
Chateau Musar’s wine shop on the Avenue des Francais in Beirut, about 1933 / Photograph courtesy of the author In addition, Turkey’s seven wine-growing areas, which produce between 600 and 1,200 indigenous kinds of vinifera grapes, have enjoyed a comeback in recent years, according to Château Musar (only about 60 are being cultivated commercially).
In recent years, European grape varieties like as Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Riesling have been introduced to the country’s vineyards.
However, producers such as Kavklidere, the country’s oldest winery, have built their reputations on the use of indigenous grapes such as the white Narince grape and the red Kalecik Karasi grape, which was resurrected from the verge of extinction.
Is the wine world ready for an old, new world order?
The majority of winemakers from these historic areas say that the largest hurdle to their international success is a lack of recognition in Western markets, particularly in the United States. Producers have attempted to boost awareness of these wines in order to persuade skeptic customers and importers to purchase them. Are casual wine drinkers ready to branch out and try something new? As interest in natural wines and unconventional winemaking processes continues to grow, it is possible that Georgia and Lebanon may soon be listed on wine lists alongside Bordeaux and other great wines of the world.
After all, they’ve been around since the beginning of the world.
Why Was Wine Invented and Who Discovered It?
Winemakers from these historic areas think that their greatest impediment to international success is a lack of recognition in Western markets, according to the vast majority of them. To persuade skeptical consumers and importers, producers have attempted to boost awareness of these wines. Wine drinkers who aren’t regulars at the bar are eager to branch out. It’s possible that, as a result of the growing interest in natural wines and unconventional winemaking processes, Georgia and Lebanon may soon be listed on wine lists alongside Bordeaux.
After all, they’ve been around since the beginning of the game.
Who Invented Wine?
The production of the greatest and most popular wines is frequently associated with regions such as California in the United States as well as France, Italy, Spain, and New Zealand. It may come as a surprise to you to learn that archaeologists unearthed the oldest recorded evidence of the presence of wine in the territories of Greece, China, Georgia, and Iran. In these sites, extensive tracts of wild grapes have been found to have been growing at least nine thousand years ago, and most likely much earlier than that, and it is in these locations that the “invention of wine” is most likely to have taken place.
Many historians have suggested that the first people, who were considerably more nomadic in character at the time, would forage for berries and other fruits, including wild grapes, from the surrounding landscape.
It would appear that the earliest of people did not set out to “create” wine, but rather that they happened upon it as a result of the natural process of fermentation occurring in their environment.
Following our forefathers’ discovery of wine thousands of years ago, how did wine grow into the beverage that we know and love today?
The Evolution of Wine – A Brief History
The years elapsed between this initial discovery of wine and the present day, and as people progressively migrated away from their nomadic existence, they began to live a lifestyle that is more comparable to the manner of living that we currently enjoy. Farming, agriculture, animal domestication, and winemaking were all developed and became much more prevalent over time as our forefathers established roots and began to live in more permanent communities. As a result, practices that we take for granted today such as farming, agriculture, animal domestication, and winemaking developed and became much more prevalent over time, eventually leading to the development of wine production.
While it is possible that wine was made in other regions earlier to 4100 BC, this cave has the oldest actual evidence of wine production at that time.
Wine Spreads Throughout Europe
The years elapsed between this initial discovery of wine and the present day, and as people progressively moved away from their nomadic existence, they began to live a lifestyle that is more comparable to the manner of living that we now enjoy. Farming, agriculture, animal domestication, and winemaking were all developed and became much more prevalent over time as our forefathers established roots and began to live in more permanent communities. As a result, practices that we take for granted today such as farming, agriculture, animal domestication, and winemaking developed and became much more prevalent over time, ultimately leading to the development of wine production.
Wine may have been made in other regions earlier to 4100 BC, but the discovery of this cave provides the earliest actual evidence of wine production in the world.
The Industrial Revolution, as well as contemporary winemaking processes, have had a significant influence on the way wine is made today. With the progressive replacement of wooden barrels with stainless steel casks, which are deemed more sanitary, the entire grape to wine process has become more industrialized. Discoveries in the fields of chemistry and biology have provided fresh insights into the way yeasts function, which has resulted in the invention of artificial yeasts, stabilizers, clarifiers, and other ‘ingredients’ designed to improve the flavor of wine and other beverages.
It is difficult to determine whether or not industrialisation was good to the winemaking industry.
The truth is that the world’s most costly wines are still made using the original methods pioneered by the monks centuries ago. It’s true that wine is less difficult to manufacture on a huge scale, but is the extra effort worth it in terms of taste?
While historians and archaeologists have differing ideas and beliefs about the true origination and discovery of wine, the fact remains that wine was discovered many centuries before the evolution of written history, and thus no one will ever truly know who the first “inventor” of wine was. For those of you who enjoy a nice glass of wine, be thankful that someone did “invent” it in the first place.
The fermented juice of the grape is known as wine. One species of the grape genus Vitis, V. vinifera (often referred to as the European grape), is used nearly exclusively in the production of wine. Wines made from V. labrusca, a native American grape variety, as well as from other grape varieties are also regarded to be wines in some circles. The name of the fruit is incorporated when other fruits are fermented to form a type of wine, as in the names peach wine and blackberry wine.
Vitis vinifera was already being farmed in the Middle East by 4000 BCE, and it is likely that it was even earlier. Egyptian documents going back to 2500 BC that mention the utilization of grapes for wine production, as well as several biblical allusions to wine, provide evidence of the industry’s early development and significance in the Middle East. TheGreekshad a thriving wine trade and sent grapes from the Black SeatoSpain to their colonies, where they were cultivated. The Romans introduced grape growing into the valleys of the Rhine and Moselle (which became the great wine regions of Germany and Alsace), the Danube (which defined the great wine regions of Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, and Austria), and the Rhône, Saône, Garonne, Loire, and Marne (which define the great French wine regions of Rhône, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Loire, and Champagne, respectively).
- Quiz on the Encyclopedia Britannica Wine Regions and Varieties: Are they true or false?
- This quiz will put your knowledge to the test.
- In the mid-16th century, Spanish missionaries introduced viticulture to Chile and Argentina, and in the 18th century, they brought it toBaja California.
- viniferagrapes began to sprout and flourish.
- From the southern missions, the center of viticulture in California moved northward, concentrating in the Central Valley and the northern counties of Sonoma, Napa, and Mendocino.
- Between 1870 and 1900, the arrival of the eastern American rootlouse, phylloxera, posed a significant danger to wine businesses across the world, damaging vineyards practically anywhere Vitis vinifera was cultivated, but particularly in Europe, Australia, and sections of California.
- viniferascions (separated shoots and buds) onto species indigenous to the eastern United States, which proved to be almost totally immune to phylloxera.
Today, additional wine-producing nations have enacted legislation that is comparable to the previous legislation.
Enology: scientific winemaking
Cultivation of Vitis vinifera began in the Middle East at least 4000 years ago, and maybe much earlier. There are Egyptian documents mentioning the utilization of grapes for wine production that date back to 2500 BCE, as well as several biblical allusions to wine, that point to the Middle East’s wine industry’s early origins and importance. TheGreekshad a thriving wine trade and sent grapes from the Black SeatoSpain to their colonies, where they planted them. In the valleys of the Rhine and Moselle (which became the great wine regions of Germany and Alsace), the Danube (of Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, and Austria), and theRhône, Saône, Garonne, Loire, and Marne (which define the great French wine regions of Rhône, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Loire, and Champagne, respectively), the Romans introduced grape growing to the great wine regions of Germany and Alsace.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the importance of wine in the Christian mass assisted in the survival of the business, and monastic organizations were responsible for the preservation and development of many of Europe’s most prestigious wine-producing regions.
What is the truth about wine regions and varieties?
Utilize this quiz to assess your knowledge.
Chile and Argentina were the first places where viticulture was introduced by Spanish missionaries in the mid-16th century, and Baja California was the first in the 18th century.
From the southern missions, the center of viticulture in California moved northward, centered on the Central Valley and the northern counties of Sonoma, Napa, and Mendocino.
From around 1870 to 1900, the arrival of the eastern American rootlouse, phylloxera, caused widespread damage to wine businesses across the world, damaging vineyards practically anywhere Vitis vinifera was cultivated, but particularly in Europe, Australia and sections of California.
viniferascions (separated shoots and buds) onto species endemic to the eastern United States, which proved to be almost totally immune to phylloxera.
Many younger wine-producing countries have adopted laws that are comparable to those in place in older wine-producing countries.
The wine grape
Color, size, and form of the berry; juice composition (including flavor); ripening period; and disease resistance are just a few of the traits that distinguish the hundreds of grape varieties that have been created, with more than 5,000 documented forV. vinifera alone. They are cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and a wide range of winemaking procedures are used to create the wines that are made from them. All of these conceivable differences contribute to the wide range of wines that are now available on the market.