Georgia is generally considered the ‘cradle of wine’, as archaeologists have traced the world’s first known wine creation back to the people of the South Caucasus in 6,000BC. These early Georgians discovered grape juice could be turned into wine by burying it underground for the winter.
- Wine was likely invented nearly 9,000 years ago in China. Learn more about the history, archeology, and evolution of wine from ancient times to today.
- 1 Who invented the first wine?
- 2 When was wine invented in the world?
- 3 Was wine invented in France?
- 4 Who invented alcohol?
- 5 Who invented grape wine?
- 6 Who invented wine glasses?
- 7 What is the oldest wine in the world?
- 8 Who invented grapes?
- 9 Did the Romans introduce wine to France?
- 10 What is the Italian wine region?
- 11 Is French or Italian wine better?
- 12 Who invented beer?
- 13 Did beer or wine come first?
- 14 Who invented Whisky?
- 15 Where Did Wine Come From? The True Origin of Wine
- 16 Where was Wine Invented?
- 17 ‘World’s oldest wine’ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia
- 18 Traditional methods
- 19 More on this story
- 20 Wine Discovery History
- 21 Wine Myths and Fables
- 22 Dionysus
- 23 The Persian Woman
- 24 Let’s Just Say…
- 25 Why Was Wine Invented and Who Discovered It?
- 26 Who Invented Wine?
- 27 The Evolution of Wine – A Brief History
- 28 Bottom Line
- 29 What Genius Culture First Thought of Fermenting Grapes?
- 30 Archaeological Evidence
- 31 Chinese Wines
- 32 Western Asia Wines
- 33 European Winemaking
- 34 The Long Road to New-World Wines
- 35 20th-Century Wine Innovations
- 36 21st-Century Wine Technology
- 37 Sources
- 38 Where Does Wine Really Come From?
- 38.1 So what happened?
- 38.2 Pulling back the curtain
- 38.3 Is the wine world ready for an old, new world order?
- 39 Winemaker, author to present history of the vineyards
- 40 wine
- 41 History
- 42 Enology: scientific winemaking
- 43 The wine grape
Who invented the first wine?
In Greek mythology, Dionysus, son of Zeus and his mistress Semele, invented wine while living in the ancient Mount Nysa amongst nymphs. This is one of the reasons why Dionysus is often referred to as the “God of Wine.”
When was wine invented in the world?
The earliest remnants of wine were discovered in the site of Hajji Firuz Tepe, in the northern Zagros Mountains of Iran. The wine dated back to the Neolithic period (8500-4000 B.C.). Carbon dating confirmed the wine was from sometime between 5400-5000 B.C.
Was wine invented in France?
History. French wine originated in the 6th century BC, with the colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers. Wine has been around for thousands of years in the countries on the Mediterranean but France has made it a part of their civilization and has considered wine-making as art for over two thousand years.
Who invented alcohol?
Fermented beverages existed in early Egyptian civilization, and there is evidence of an early alcoholic drink in China around 7000 B.C. In India, an alcoholic beverage called sura, distilled from rice, was in use between 3000 and 2000 B.C.
Who invented grape wine?
Previously, the earliest evidence of grape wine-making had been found in the Zagros Mountains of Iran and dated to 5,400-5,000 BC. In 2011, a wine press and fermentation jars from about 6,000 years ago were found in a cave in Armenia.
Who invented wine glasses?
1. The wine glass emerged out of medieval Venice. The modern-day glass as we know it probably emerged around 1400 in the city of Venice. People have been using glass to drink wine for a lot longer, even in the ancient world, but the design we think of – essentially a bowl, a stem and a base – is medieval.
What is the oldest wine in the world?
Oldest Wine in Existence Today: 325-350 AD Speyer Wine Bottle. Found in 1867 in the tomb of Roman soldier, the Speyer wine bottle is believed to be the oldest wine in existence.
Who invented grapes?
The Phoenicians carried the grape into France about 600 bce. The Romans planted grapes in the Rhine valley not later than the 2nd century ce.
Did the Romans introduce wine to France?
Brief History of French Wine During this period in 6th century BC, wine was an important part of domestic life, besides the commercial and civilization missions of the Ancient Greeks and Romans, who introduced it to their new colonies and later planted vineyards.
What is the Italian wine region?
Italy produces a huge amount of table wine, Vermouth, and cooking wines (such as Marsala). That being said, there are 3 major regions that produce high quality table wines and they are: Veneto, Tuscany, and Piedmont!
Is French or Italian wine better?
There is no winner or loser in this comparison. It comes down to a matter of personal taste. France’s Pinot Gris and Italy’s Pinot Grigio are the same grape but are produced in different styles.
Who invented beer?
The first beer in the world was brewed by the ancient Chinese around the year 7000 BCE (known as kui). In the west, however, the process now recognized as beer brewing began in Mesopotamia at the Godin Tepe settlement now in modern-day Iran between 3500 – 3100 BCE.
Did beer or wine come first?
Late Stone Age beer jugs prove that beer was made at least as early as the Neolithic period. That was about 10,000 B.C. In fact, beer may have preceded bread as a staple. Wine appeared in Egyptian pictographs around 4,000 B.C. The earliest alcoholic beverages might have been made from berries or honey.
Who invented Whisky?
Ireland and Scotland In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls for 1494 where malt is sent “To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae”, enough to make about 500 bottles. James IV of Scotland (r.
Where Did Wine Come From? The True Origin of Wine
Summary of the ArticleXSoak the empty bottle in a bath of hot water for 15 minutes to make it easier to remove the wine labels before collecting. Then, while the bottle is still wet, carefully take it from the water and begin peeling the label away from the bottle. You must be very careful not to break the label, since it is so delicate! Following removal of the label, lay it with the adhesive side facing up on a clean surface to dry. This will prevent it from attaching to anything else before it has a chance to cure completely.
Were you able to benefit from this overview?
Where is The True Origin of Wine?
According to current evidence, wine originated in West Asia, namely in the Caucasus Mountains, Zagros Mountains, Euphrates River Valley, and Southeastern Anatolia, among other places. As a whole, this region encompasses the modern-day nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, northern Iran, and eastern Turkey, as well as parts of the former Soviet Union. An ancient winery site in Armenia, grape residue discovered in clay jars in Georgia, and indicators of grape domestication in eastern Turkey are among the evidence of wine manufacturing dating back to between 6,000 BC and 4,000 BC, according to archaeologists.
The Shulaveri-Shomu people (also known as the “Shulaveri-Shomutepe Culture”) are supposed to have been the first people in this area to make wine.
Some instances of what we’ve learnt about the history of wine may be found below.
Wine in 6,000 BC
Organic chemicals identified in ancient Georgian pottery have been linked to the production of wine in a region in the Southern Caucasus. The earthenware pots, known as Kvevri (or Qvevri), may still be found in use in Georgian winemaking today. Purchase the book and receive the course! You can enroll in the Wine 101 Course (a $50 value). With the purchase of Wine Folly: Magnum Edition, you will receive this bonus. Read on to find out more
Wild Vines in Southeastern Anatolia
José Vouillimoz (a grape “ampelologist”) discovered a location in Turkey where wild grape vines are genetically similar to farmed grape vines via research into grape genetics. This study lends credence to the hypothesis that a convergence zone between cultivated and wild vines might have served as the site of the first winemaking operations.
A Relic Winery Unearthed in Armenia
The earliest known winery (4,100 BC) may be found in a collection of caverns outside the Armenian town of Areni, which is located near the border with Turkey. The community is still well-known for its winemaking, and it produces red wines from a grape grown in the area that goes by the name of Areni.
Areni is estimated to be hundreds of years old, and it is still available for consumption today! To the civilizations of Greece and Phoenicia we owe our understanding of the dispersal of wine grapes across European history.
Ancient Wine Influencers: The Phoenicians and Greeks
Wine vines traveled from West Asia to the Mediterranean, following cultures as they spread throughout the continent. The Phoenicians and the Greeks, among other seafaring civilizations, were responsible for spreading wine over most of Europe. As grapevines were introduced to various environments, they gradually evolved to adapt to the new environment. The mutations resulted in the development of new grape varieties, often known as “cultivars,” within the wine grape species. This explains why we have many thousands of grapes in our vineyard today!
- The number of types depicted in each nation corresponds to the number of varieties currently in use in contemporary wine production today.
- The importance of diversity cannot be overstated.
- In addition, different grape varieties flourish in different climates and soils.
- Unfortunately, the high demand for popular grape varieties has resulted in a reduction in the quantity of natural diversity in the world.
- Planting grapes that are known to you is more frequent than you may expect.
- According to current vineyard figures, there are more than 700,000 acres (288,400 hectares) of Cabernet Sauvignon planted.
Drink New Wines From Old Grapes
If you enjoy wine, make an effort to explore various varieties; this will help to broaden your palate. This is why we’ve put up a basic collection of more than 100 grape types that you might like trying! I hope you enjoyed this look into the history of wine and that you would go at the collection below. More Information on Grapes
Where was Wine Invented?
When addressing this issue, there are a number of factors that must be considered, and many nations will contribute to the history of wine as a whole, having claimed to have originated certain parts throughout its existence. Many people are surprised to learn that China is considered to be the birthplace of wine; at the very least, the concept of a grape-based fermented drink is believed to have originated there around 7,000 BC, approximately 1,000 years before Georgia and more than 7,500 years before the birth of Champagne*.
The most important thing to remember about the origin of wine is that, no, it did not take place in France, and, wrong again, it did not take place in Italy either!
Many famous works of art, like Twelfth-night (The King Drinks) 1634-40 and The Last Supper 1495–1498, depict wine.
– Wine occurs in many religious texts, including the Bible and Hebrew Bible (Noah established a vineyard and fell intoxicated). In addition, many of us would have heard that wine is a gift from the gods and thatJesus Christ himself was capable of turning water into wine.
- The earliest evidence of wine (fermentation) production dates back to China around 8,000 B.C.
- The first earthenware containers used for storing wine date back to 6,000 B.C.
- The earliest recorded winery dates back to Armenia 4,100 B.C.
- The first use of glass bottles for wines dates back to the 17th century
- And the oldest recorded winery dates back to Armenia 4,100 B.C.
8,000 B.C. is the earliest evidence of wine (fermentation) production in China; 6,000 B.C. is the earliest evidence of earthenware containers used for wine storage; 4,100 B.C. is the earliest recorded evidence of a winery; 3rd century B.C. is the earliest evidence of wooden barrels for wines; 17th century is evidence of the first use of glass bottles for wines;
‘World’s oldest wine’ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia
AFP is the source of this image. Caption for the image Some of the Neolithic jars were adorned with grape designs. 8,000-year-old pottery shards, according to scientists, have shown the world’s earliest evidence of grape wine production. The pottery jars, which contained residual wine chemicals, were discovered at two locations south of the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, according to the experts. Some of the jars included graphics of grape clusters and a dancing figure on the outside. Previously, the earliest evidence of wine-making had been discovered in north-western Iran, in pottery that had been there for almost 7,000 years.
For thousands of years, wine has been the centre of religious cults, pharmacopoeias, cuisines, economics, and social life in the ancient Near East.
The ceramic jars were discovered in two Neolithic settlements, called Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveris Gora, some 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Tbilisi, according to the researchers. Gadachrili Gora is a hamlet in the Gadachrili region of Georgia. Eight jars with telltale chemical evidence of wine were unearthed, the oldest of which dates back to around 5,980 BC. According to David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum, who was involved in the research, large jars known as qvevri, which are comparable to the ancient ones, are being used for winemaking in Georgia today.
The world’s first non-grape based wine is believed to be a fermented alcoholic beverage made from rice, honey, and fruit that was discovered in China around 7,000 BC and dates back to that time period.
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Wine Discovery History
Here are a handful of the most significant events in the lengthy history of wine:
- Some of the most significant events in wine’s long history are as follows:
Wine Myths and Fables
In the wine world, there are several well-known myths and fables that attribute the development, or discovery, of wine to different regions of the world.
Some of the most well-known tales are included here.
According to most accounts, this is the most well-known of the wine legends. When Dionysus, a son of Zeus and Semele, lived among the nymphs on the ancient Mount Nysa, according to Greek mythology, he came up with the idea of making wine. The fact that Dionysus is commonly referred to as the “God of Wine” is one of the reasons behind this.
The Persian Woman
Many folklorists believe that this narrative of the Persian woman and the fermented grapes is the basis for the invention of wine. There are at least two different versions of this game. Here are the details:
A Persian Princess had found herself in disfavor with the King of Persia after a series of unfortunate events. When she learned of this, she attempted to commit herself by ingesting a container of rotting grapes that she had brought with her. Instead of dying, she discovered that she was feeling better and acting significantly happier. After a while, she slept asleep, but when she awoke, she discovered that the King had been impressed with her new attitude to the point that he had welcomed her back into his good graces.
A Persian woman became ill with a headache and drank from a jar she used to hold grapes to alleviate her symptoms. Due to the fermented state of the grapes in the jar, the woman became inebriated and passed out. Her headache was vanished by the time she awoke.
Let’s Just Say…
For the sake of argument, let’s simply claim that the entire globe developed wine because no two legends will ever agree on who did it first. Despite the fact that it is possible to carbon date the earliest wine bottles and that fresh archaeological finds involving wine are being unearthed, there is simply no method to prove who was the first to develop wine. In order to express gratitude to the Persian Princess, Dionysus, or anyone you want, lift your glass of wine and make a nod to them, or to whomever you choose, next time you are sipping your favorite wine.
All intellectual property rights are retained.
Why Was Wine Invented and Who Discovered It?
Why not ponder the subject “Why was wine developed and who found it?” the next time you’re sipping on your favorite Chardonnay or an Italian Red? Wine, a beverage that has seemingly endured the test of time, has grown through thousands of years to become a part of the everyday culture of people from all corners of the world and from all walks of life, and it is now available in over 100 countries. Today’s wine is available in more types and vintages than one could possible envision. Because of the rich history of this historically significant beverage, considerable analysis and argument have taken place over its origins and significance.
Is it possible to determine who exactly was the discoverer of wine?
Who Invented Wine?
The production of the greatest and most popular wines is frequently associated with regions such as California in the United States as well as France, Italy, Spain, and New Zealand. It may come as a surprise to you to learn that archaeologists unearthed the oldest recorded evidence of the presence of wine in the territories of Greece, China, Georgia, and Iran. In these sites, extensive tracts of wild grapes have been found to have been growing at least nine thousand years ago, and most likely much earlier than that, and it is in these locations that the “invention of wine” is most likely to have taken place.
Many historians have suggested that the first people, who were considerably more nomadic in character at the time, would forage for berries and other fruits, including wild grapes, from the surrounding landscape.
It would appear that the earliest of people did not set out to “create” wine, but rather that they happened upon it as a result of the natural process of fermentation occurring in their environment.
Following our forefathers’ discovery of wine thousands of years ago, how did wine grow into the beverage that we know and love today?
The Evolution of Wine – A Brief History
In today’s globe, people frequently link regions such as California in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, and New Zealand with being the regions that are responsible for the creation of the greatest and most popular wines. It may come as a surprise to you to learn that archaeologists in Greece, China, Georgia, and Iran unearthed the first documented proof of the existence of wine in the ancient world. As far back as nine thousand years ago, and most certainly much earlier than that, these sites were known to have enormous expanses of wild grapes growing, and it is in these areas where the ” creation of wine ” is most likely to have taken place.
There has been significant speculation among historians about how the early people, who were nomads at the time, would have collected berries and other foods, including wild grapes.
It would appear that the earliest of people did not set out to “create” wine, but rather that they happened across it as a result of the natural process of fermentation occurring in their surroundings.
Wine Spreads Throughout Europe
Following this, the production of wine expanded to other parts of the Middle East and Europe throughout the centuries that followed. Following the Roman Empire’s spread around the Mediterranean, winemaking began to flourish throughout Europe as a result of this development. The founding of many of the prominent wine-producing regions that are still in existence today dates back to this period. It was in these regions that the first barrels for storing and exporting wine were created, and as the process of creating wine became more and more sophisticated, the popularity of the beverage grew exponentially.
- At this point in history, wine had become a vital component of people’s daily meals, most likely as a result of the fact that drinking water was still considered to be unsuitable for human consumption at the time.
- Imagine if we were able to say it right now!
- The Benedictine Monks planted vineyards in various locations of France and Germany during this time period, and by this point, the majority of people in Europe were consuming wine with every course of their meals.
- The beverage has played a significant role in religious tales and festivals for thousands of years, since since it was discovered in the Mediterranean.
- For example, the Kiddush, which is a Jewish blessing that is spoken over wine to sanctify the Shabbat, and the Seder, during which adults are required to drink four cups of wine during the holiday of Passover, are both examples of the significance and regard that Jews have for wine.
Christians believe that during the celebration of the Eucharist, wine is turned into the blood of Jesus Christ.
Following that, the production of wine expanded to other parts of the Middle East and Europe throughout the centuries that followed. During the Roman Empire’s extensive spread around the Mediterranean, winemaking became established in Europe. Many of the prominent wine-producing locations that are still in existence today had their start during this time period. Wine barrels for storing and exporting wine originally appeared in these regions, and as the wine-making process became more and more perfected, the popularity of the beverage grew as well.
- The history of the evolution of wine continued as ages passed.
- Drinking a glass of wine with supper was far safer than drinking a glass of water before dinner, according to the researchers.
- Many church monasteries spread across Europe, many of which began to cultivate some of the greatest vineyards in Europe, all of which contributed to its rise in popularity.
- What we know as wine today is a result of this sort of wine and these wine-making procedures, which have contributed to the evolution of the beverage.
- Over the course of recorded history, wine has played an important role in both Judaism and Christianity.
- As part of the holy rite of communion, which is based on the Biblical story of Jesus’ Last Supper as recorded in the Gospel of Luke, wine is used to commemorate the death and resurrection of the Lord.
However, while historians and archaeologists have varying thoughts and opinions regarding the genuine origination and discovery of wine, the truth remains that wine was found many centuries before the emergence of written history, and so no one will ever fully know who was the original “creator” of wine. For those of you who like a good glass of wine, remember that it was someone who “invented” the beverage.
What Genius Culture First Thought of Fermenting Grapes?
However, while historians and archaeologists have differing ideas and beliefs about the true origination and discovery of wine, the fact remains that wine was discovered many centuries before the evolution of written history, and therefore, no one will ever truly know who the first “inventor” of wine was in reality.
You should be grateful that someone did “create” a wonderful glass of wine for those of you who love a good glass of wine.
Because the presence of grape seeds, fruit skins, stems, and/or stalks at an archaeological site does not always suggest the manufacturing of wine, finding archaeological evidence of winemaking is a little more difficult to come by. The existence of domesticated stocks and evidence of grape processing are the two primary means of recognizing winemaking that have been approved by academicians. One of the most significant changes that occurred during the domestication process of grapes was the appearance of hermaphroditic blooms, which means that domesticated species of grapes are capable of self-pollination.
Domestication is also shown by the finding of components of the plant outside of its natural region, which is widely acknowledged.
vinifera sylvestris, the wild parent of the European wild grape (Vitis vinifera), is native to western Eurasia between the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas; hence, the appearance of V.
China is where the true history of wine from grapes begins. In China’s early Neolithic site ofJiahuh, residues on ceramic shards radiocarbon-dated to around 7000–6600 BCE were discovered, and they were determined to have come from a fermented beverage produced from a mixture of rice, honey, fruit, and spices. The presence of tartaric acid/tartrate remains at the bottom of a jar was used to confirm the presence of fruits. If you drink wine from corked bottles nowadays, you’re probably familiar with these terms.
It has been discovered that grape seeds and hawthorn seeds have both been found at Jiahu.
It is possible that grapes were used in wine recipes, but they were from a wild grape species local to China, rather than being brought from Western Asia.
China received its first introduction of European grapes around the second century BCE, along with a number of other Silk Road goods.
Western Asia Wines
When it comes to winemaking in western Asia, the first solid evidence comes from an Iranian Neolithic era site named Hajji Firuz (dated to 5400–5000 BCE), where a layer of sediment preserved at the bottom of an amphora was discovered to contain a mixture of tannin and tartrate crystals. A total of five other jars, each having a capacity of about nine liters of liquid, were found in the site deposits, in addition to the jar containing the tannin/tartrate sediment. Lake Zeriber, Iran, is one example of a site outside of the typical range for grapes that has early evidence of grapes and grape processing in western Asia.
By the late sixth millennium BCE to the early fifth millennium BCE, charred fruit skin fragments have been discovered in Kurban Höyük in southeastern Turkey.
An Egyptian tomb belonging to the Scorpion King (dating from around 3150 BCE) contained 700 jars, which were thought to have been produced and filled with wine in the Levant before being carried to Egypt.
Wild grape (Vitis vinifera) pips have been discovered in Europe in relatively recent contexts, such as the Franchthi Cave in Greece (12,000 years ago) and the Balma de l’Abeurador in France (10,000 years ago) (about 10,000 years ago). However, the evidence for domesticated grapes is older than that for grapes from East Asia, albeit it is similar to that for grapes from Western Asia. In Greece, excavators discovered grape pips and empty skins that were direct-dated to 4400–4000 BCE at a site known as Dikili Tash, making it the earliest known example of grape cultivation in the Aegean.
There have also been reports of grapevines and timber being discovered.
By the Roman period, viticulture had expanded over much of the Mediterranean region and western Europe, and wine had become a highly prized commercial and cultural product.
Towards the end of the first century BCE, it had developed into a significant speculative and commercial asset.
The Long Road to New-World Wines
As soon as the Icelandic explorer Leif Erikson set foot on the coasts of North America in the year 1000 CE, he named the newly discovered country Vinland (sometimes written Winland) in honor of the abundance of wild grapevines that grew there. It should come as no surprise that when European people began arriving in the New World around 600 years later, the abundant potential for viticulture was immediately apparent. Unfortunately, with the notable exception ofVitis rotundifolia (commonly known as the muscadine or “Scuppernong” grape), which grew primarily in the southern United States, most of the native grape varieties that European settlers first encountered did not lend themselves to the production of tasty—or even potable—wine when they were first introduced.
“The struggle to make the New World produce wine of the quality they were accustomed to in Europe was begun by the earliest settlers and continued for generations, only to end in defeat over and over again,” writes Thomas Pinney, an award-winning culinary author and retired professor of English at Pomona College.
” For winemaking to have a chance in the eastern portion of the nation, it was necessary to understand that only native grape types could survive against the endemic illnesses and severe environment of North America.” Pinney points out that it wasn’t until the colonization of California in the mid-19th century that things really began to shift for American viticulture.
He attributes the creation of new hybrid grapes as well as cumulative trial and error to the expansion of the breadth of winemaking outside of California, which he describes as more demanding and diversified.
‘After nearly three centuries of tribulation, loss, and fresh endeavor, the expectations of the original inhabitants were finally realized,’ writes the author.
20th-Century Wine Innovations
If you go back to the year 1000 CE, the Icelandic explorer Leif Erikson arrived on the coasts of North America and named the newly discovered country Vinland (alternately written Winland) due to the abundance of wild grapevines that grew there. It should come as no surprise that when European people began arriving in the New World around 600 years later, the abundant potential for viticulture was immediately apparent. Most native grapes, with the noteworthy exception ofVitis rotundifolia (commonly known as the muscadine or “Scuppernong” grape), which thrived mostly in the southern United States, did not lend themselves to the production of tasty—or even potable—wine when first met by European immigrants.
In the words of Thomas Pinney, award-winning culinary author and Emeritus Professor of English at Pomona College, “the struggle to make the New World yield wine like they had known in Europe began with the earliest settlers and was persisted in for generations, only to end in defeat over and over again.” ‘There have been few things in American history that have been more avidly attempted and more totally failed than the venture of producing European types of grapes for the purpose of creating wine.
Winemaking in the eastern half of the nation didn’t take off until it was realized that only native grape varietals could survive the endemic illnesses and severe environment of North America.” The colonization of California in the mid-19th century, according to Pinney, was the turning point in the history of American viticulture.
Developing new hybrid grapes and accumulating trial and error, he believes, have helped to broaden the scope of winemaking in more tough and diverse environments outside of California’s borders.
Fast Facts: 21st Century U.S. Wine Statistics
- A total of 10,043 wineries were operating in the United States as of February 2019. State with the highest production: California, with 4,425 wineries, generates 85 percent of all wine produced in the United States. Following that are Washington (776 wineries), Oregon (773 wineries), New York (396 wineries), Texas (323 wineries), and Virginia (280 wineries). 40% of the legal drinking population, which amounts to 240 million people, is comprised of adults who consume wine
- Gender differences in wine consumption in the United States: 56 percent of female customers and 44 percent of male consumers
- Mature (age 73+) wine drinkers account for 5 percent of total wine consumption in the United States
- Baby Boomers (age 54 to 72), 34 percent
- Generation X (age 42 to 53), 19 percent
- Millennials (age 24 to 41), 36 percent
- And the I-Generation (age 21 to 23), 6 percent. In the United States, the average annual wine consumption is 11 liters, or approximately 2.94 gallons.
21st-Century Wine Technology
As of February 2019, there were 10,043 wineries in the United States. California generates 85 percent of all wine produced in the United States, thanks to its 4,425 wineries. Washington has 776 wineries, followed by Oregon with 773, New York with 396, Texas with 323 and Virginia with 280. The percentage of adult Americans who consume wine is 40 percent of the legal drinking population, which totals 240 million individuals. Men outnumber women in terms of wine consumption in the United States (56% against 44%).
Each person consumes 11 liters of wine year, which is equivalent to 2.94 gallons.
- Archaeologist Patrick McGovern maintains a website titled The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Maurizio Antoninetti is a professor at the University of Pennsylvania. From Quintessential Element to Local Moonshine to National Sunshine, the Long Journey of Italian Grappa is described in detail. Journal of Cultural Geography, volume 28, number 3, 2011, pages 375–97. The potential of combining morphology and ancient DNA information to investigate grapevine domestication has been demonstrated by Roberto Bacilieri and colleagues. 345–56 in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, volume 26.3 (2017). Print
- Hans Barnard and colleagues In the Late Chalcolithic Near-Eastern Highlands, there is chemical evidence for wine production circa 4000 BCE. In 2011, the Journal of Archaeological Science published an article titled Journal of Archaeological Science38.5 (2011): 977-84. Print
- Anthony Borneman and colleagues What is the origin of wine yeast, and where are we getting it from? WineViticulture Journal31.3 (2016): 47–49. WineViticulture Journal31.3 (2016): 47–49. The following is a print version of the paper by H. Campbell-Sills et al. titled “Advances in Wine Analysis by Ptr-Tof-Ms: Optimization of the Method and Discrimination of Wines from Different Geographical Origins and Fermented with Different Malolactic Starters.” The paper is available here. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry397–398 (2016): 42–51. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry397–398 (2016): 42–51. Food and Foodways 19.4 (2011): 294–313
- Goldberg, Kevin D. ” Acidity and Power: The Politics of Natural Wine in Nineteenth-Century Germany.” Food and Foodways 19.4 (2011): 294–313. The print is by Guasch Jané and Maria Rosa. In “The Meaning of Wine in Egyptian Tombs: The Three Amphorae from Tutankhamun’s Burial Chamber,” Antiquity 85.329 (2011): 851–58, the author discusses the three amphorae from Tutankhamun’s Burial Chamber. Print
- Patrick E. McGovern and colleagues In France, the beginnings of viniculture may be traced. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America is a journal that publishes research findings from the National Academy of Sciences. The journal 110.25 (2013): 10147–52. The authors, Peter Morrison–Whittle and Matthew R. Goddard, published a print version of their work. ” From Vineyard to Winery: A Source Map of Microbial Diversity Driving Wine Fermentation” is a scientific paper that describes a source map of microbial diversity driving wine fermentation. Environmental Microbiology, Volume 20, Number 1, Pages 75–84, 2018. Print
- Orrù, Martino, and colleagues “Morphological Characterization of Vitis Vinifera L. Seeds by Image Analysis and Comparison with Archaeological Remains.” ” Morphological Characterization of Vitis Vinifera L. Seeds by Image Analysis and Comparison with Archaeological Remains.” 231–42 in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, vol. 22.3 (2013). The author’s name is Valamoti, SoultanaMaria.” “Taking advantage of the ‘Wild’ Examining the Context of Fruit and Nut Exploitation at Neolithic Dikili Tash, with Particular Attention Paid to Wine” 24.1 (2015): 35–46. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany is a journal dedicated to the study of the history of plants and their evolution. Pinney, Thomas, ed., print. “A History of Wine in the United States:.” The University of California Press published this book (1989) Allison Aubry’s From the Beginnings through Prohibition is a must-read. “Cork vs. Screw Cap: Don’t Make a Decision About a Wine Based on How It’s Sealed.” On January 2, 2014, NPR broadcasted “The Salt”
- Liz Thach, MW, wrote “The US Wine Industry in 2019 – Slowing but Steady, and Craving Innovation.”
Where Does Wine Really Come From?
When you think of wine, the first thing that springs to mind is probably one of the world’s great wine regions, such as Bordeaux, Napa, or Champagne. Alternatively, grapes like as Pinot Noir, Malbec, Riesling, and Cabernet Sauvignon can be used. However, a rising number of winemakers in the Middle East, Western Asia, and Eastern Europe are keen to remind the world that they represent some of the world’s oldest wine-producing regions, and that they are creating wines that are unlike anything else on the planet.
- While it is difficult to pinpoint the exact location of the first fermented grape beverage, scholars have traced the origins of domesticated grapes to a region near the headwaters of the Tigris River in Turkey, where they believe they originated.
- Patrick McGovern, scientific director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Healthat the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, has traveled widely around the region in search of an answer to this question.
- Gregory Areshian is a professor at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) McGovern, dubbed “The Indiana Jones of Alcohol,” is credited for discovering what he thinks to be the grapes that are the foundation of contemporary winemaking practices.
- In order to produce fruit, they require pollination between plants to occur.
- José Vouillamoz, a Swiss grape geneticist who works near the churning headwaters of the Tigris, discovered a spontaneous mutation—hermaphroditic vines that could self-pollinate and produced higher harvests of fruit.
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- These formed the building blocks of the wine we consume today.
- There is evidence to suggest that the Etruscans did not begin shipping their first wine in amphorae vessels to France until around 600 BCE.
So what happened?
What comes to mind when you think of wine are powerful places such as Bordeaux, Napa Valley, and Champagne. But there are many more locations that produce excellent wines. Grapes such as Pinot Noir, Malbec and Riesling are examples of such varietals. The Middle East, Western Asia, and Eastern Europe are home to some of the world’s oldest wine-producing regions, and their wines are unlike anything else on the planet, according to a growing number of winemakers in these countries. On the occasion of a recent event sponsored by the Smithsonian Associates in Washington, DC, a panel of winemakers and wine historians debated who, if anybody, may legitimately claim to be the original founders of wine.
- During his search for an explanation, Dr.
- Inside Armenia’s “Areni-1,” the world’s oldest known winery, where the world’s earliest evidence of wine presses and fermentation vessels, as well as early vinifera seeds, were discovered / Photo courtesy of the Armenian Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
- He is also known as “The Indiana Jones of Alcohol.” There are male and female variations of wild grapevines, as there are in many other plants.
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- Policy Regarding Personal Data Collection and Usage According to the researchers, these plants were utilized to reproduce the world’s first cultivated grapevines some 100,000 years ago.
The trade of these early wines extended down the Mediterranean coast, into Greece, Italy, France, and other current wine-producing regions, including the United Kingdom. Etruscans brought their first wine in amphorae vessels to France only around 600 B.C., according to the archaeological evidence.
If the rise of interest in natural wines and offbeat winemaking techniques are any indication, maybe you’ll soon see Georgia and Lebanon featured as prominently as Bordeaux on wine lists.
Each region had a unique set of circumstances that contributed to the slowing down of the wine industry. As a result of the ancient Ottoman Empire’s prohibition on alcohol, Turkey has developed a society with tight alcohol prohibitions in comparison to its Western neighbors, and today, an estimated 83 percent of Turks still identify as teetotalers. Lebanon was ravaged by a civil war that lasted from 1975 to 1990, making labor in the fields exceedingly risky and destroying many ancient vineyards, many of which have just lately been restored.
“The Soviets were more concerned with quantity than with quality,” Uzunashvili explains.
The Soviet leadership imposed additional output quotas and stifled technological advancement.
Pulling back the curtain
Producers wish to promote wines created from distinctive local grapes that have been neglected in more well-known winemaking locations in the future, according to their vision.
Rkatsiteli is so ingrained in the region’s culture that local religious lore contends it was the first vine planted by Noah after the biblical flood.
In Georgia, for example, the town of Saperavi is a source of national pride. It’s one of the few teinturier grapes, which means that both the meat and the skin of the grape are red, that is employed in single-varietal production. Even though it contributes for the great bulk of the country’s red-wine output, it is only sometimes seen outside of the region, with the exception of a few scattered plantings in New York’s Finger Lakes region. In the Soviet Union, Rkatsiteli, an acidic white variety, was the most regularly planted grape until 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev began paying farmers to uproot their vines as part of a statewide drive to combat alcoholism.
- Researchers have not yet uncovered a genetic “parent” grape that can be traced back to a certain variety.
- Georgian Qvevri has been laid to rest / Photograph courtesy Georgian wines are made from grapes that are grown in Georgia.
- This amphora differs significantly from other conventional forms in that the qvevri are hidden beneath the surface of the vessel, allowing for better temperature regulation.
- With its honey and apricot aromas, the grape lends itself to the production of the country’s distinctive sweet wines, while companies such as Highland Cellars also offer notable dry 100-percent Voskehat bottlings that are worth seeking out.
- Although it is poorly recognized outside of Armenia, the grape is being exploited by producers like asKataroto to produce high-quality dry red wines of distinction.
- Yacoubian-Hobbs is a partnership between Vahe and Viken Yacoubian and winemaker Paul Hobbs.
- Semina Consulting executive director Vahe Keushguerian points out that just approximately 10 percent of Armenian grapes are grafted, as the country was spared from the phylloxera disease that virtually wiped out European wine production in the late nineteenth century.
- Despite this, Château Musarin the Bekaa Valley, which was created in 1930 and has been producing high-quality wines for decades, continues to thrive.
Chateau Musar’s wine shop on the Avenue des Francais in Beirut, about 1933 / Photograph courtesy of the author In addition, Turkey’s seven wine-growing areas, which produce between 600 and 1,200 indigenous kinds of vinifera grapes, have enjoyed a comeback in recent years, according to Château Musar (only about 60 are being cultivated commercially).
In recent years, European grape varieties like as Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Riesling have been introduced to the country’s vineyards.
However, producers such as Kavklidere, the country’s oldest winery, have built their reputations on the use of indigenous grapes such as the white Narince grape and the red Kalecik Karasi grape, which was resurrected from the verge of extinction.
Is the wine world ready for an old, new world order?
The majority of winemakers from these historic areas say that the largest hurdle to their international success is a lack of recognition in Western markets, particularly in the United States. Producers have attempted to boost awareness of these wines in order to persuade skeptic customers and importers to purchase them. Are casual wine drinkers ready to branch out and try something new? As interest in natural wines and unconventional winemaking processes continues to grow, it is possible that Georgia and Lebanon may soon be listed on wine lists alongside Bordeaux and other great wines of the world.
After all, they’ve been around since the beginning of the world.
On Monday, May 1, at 7:30 p.m. at Ice Auditorium in Melrose Hall at Linfield College, award-winning winemaker Ken Wright and McMinnville author Jim Gullo will give “History of the Vineyards,” a history of some of Oregon’s best vineyards. Wright is a winemaker and Gullo is an author. Wright, owner of Ken Wright Cellars (pictured left with wife Karen) commissioned Gullo to conduct a series of reports that explore the histories and land usages of 13 Willamette Valley vineyard properties that Wright farms and/or sources for his award-winning lineup of Pinot Noir wines.
In the first half of 2015, Gullo began researching and writing tales on Wright-sourced assets such as the Freedom Hill Vineyard, Canary Hill Vineyard, and other such places.
It is emerging from the vineyard histories that a rich tapestry of the people and events that helped form Oregon lands even before the wine industry began to take root in the state during the last 50 years is being revealed.
Farmers, blacksmiths, judges, pioneers, Civil War and Indian War heroes all ended up in the Willamette Valley at some point in their lives.
In Wright’s words, “the history of these homes is rich and varied, and Jim did an excellent job of uncovering the people and stories that brought these places to life.” Wright relocated to Oregon in 1986 and built Panther Creek Cellars in Carlton, Oregon, before establishing Ken Wright Cellars in Carlton in 1994.
A McMinnville-based author and writer, Gullo’s pieces on wine, travel, and regional topics have appeared in publications such as the Oregon Wine Press, Alaska Airlines Magazine, Portland Monthly, and the Horizon Airlines Magazine, among others.
In addition to “Trading Manny,” he has written other books, including “The Comedy Keeper.” Taking place as part of the Linfield College Wine Lecture Series, the presentation is free and accessible to the general public. In order to obtain further information, please contact 503-883-2766.
On Monday, May 1, at 7:30 p.m. in Ice Auditorium in Melrose Hall at Linfield College, award-winning winemaker Ken Wright and McMinnville author Jim Gullo will give “History of the Vineyards,” a history of some of Oregon’s best vineyards. Wright, owner of Ken Wright Cellars (pictured left with wife Karen) commissioned Gullo to conduct a series of reports that explore the histories and land usages of 13 Willamette Valley vineyard properties that Wright farms and/or sources for his award-winning lineup of Pinot Noir wines.
The Freedom Hill Vineyard, Canary Hill Vineyard, and other sites that Wright references have all been subject to extensive investigation and writing by Gullo, who began doing so in 2015.
An intricate tapestry of people and events that have influenced Oregon lands even before the wine industry began to take root in the state during the last 50 years is emerging from the vineyard histories.
Farmers, blacksmiths, judges, pioneers, Civil War and Indian War heroes all ended up in the Willamette Valley at one point or another.
According to Wright, “the history of these estates is rich and varied, and Jim did an excellent job of uncovering the individuals and stories that bring these places to life.” Upon relocating to Oregon, Wright developed Panther Creek Cellars in 1986 and Ken Wright Cellars in Carlton, Oregon, in 1994.
A McMinnville-based author and writer, Gullo’s pieces on wine, travel, and regional issues have appeared in publications such as the Oregon Wine Press, Alaska Airlines Magazine, Portland Monthly, and the Horizon Airlines Magazine, among others.
There is no charge for this presentation, which is part of the Linfield College Wine Lecture Series.
Vitis vinifera was already being farmed in the Middle East by 4000 BCE, and it is likely that it was even earlier. Egyptian documents going back to 2500 BC that mention the utilization of grapes for wine production, as well as several biblical allusions to wine, provide evidence of the industry’s early development and significance in the Middle East. TheGreekshad a thriving wine trade and sent grapes from the Black SeatoSpain to their colonies, where they were cultivated. The Romans introduced grape growing into the valleys of the Rhine and Moselle (which became the great wine regions of Germany and Alsace), the Danube (which defined the great wine regions of Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, and Austria), and the Rhône, Saône, Garonne, Loire, and Marne (which define the great French wine regions of Rhône, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Loire, and Champagne, respectively).
- Quiz on the Encyclopedia Britannica Quick-fire question: Champagne What is the origin of the word champagne?
- Pour some bubbly into your glass and take this brief quiz to discover how much you know about the beverage.
- In the mid-16th century, Spanish missionaries introduced viticulture to Chile and Argentina, and in the 18th century, they brought it toBaja California.
- viniferagrapes began to sprout and flourish.
- From the southern missions, the center of viticulture in California moved northward, concentrating in the Central Valley and the northern counties of Sonoma, Napa, and Mendocino.
- Between 1870 and 1900, the arrival of the eastern American rootlouse, phylloxera, posed a significant danger to wine businesses across the world, damaging vineyards practically anywhere Vitis vinifera was cultivated, but particularly in Europe, Australia, and sections of California.
- viniferascions (separated shoots and buds) onto species indigenous to the eastern United States, which proved to be almost totally immune to phylloxera.
Today, additional wine-producing nations have enacted legislation that is comparable to the previous legislation.
Enology: scientific winemaking
Prior to the nineteenth century, nothing was understood about the fermentation process or the factors that contribute to rotting. The Greeks stored their wine in earthenware amphorae, and the Romans improved the quality of their oaken cooperage, but both civilizations probably consumed almost all of their wines within a year of harvest and disguised spoilage by adding such flavorings as honey, herbs, cheese, and salt water to the wine they were drinking. Wooden barrels were the primary aging containers until the 17th century, when widespread manufacture of glass bottles and the discovery of the corkstopper enabled wines to be matured in bottles for extended periods of time.
Pasteur also discovered the germs that cause wine to rot and invented a heating procedure (later known as pasteurization) to eliminate the bacteria that caused the spoilage.
Advanced plant physiology and disease research have also contributed to improved vine training and reduced mildew damage to grapes.
Steel fermentation and storage tanks are easy to clean and can be cooled to exact temperatures, thanks to their stainless steel construction.
Beginning in the 1960s, the adoption of mechanized grape harvesters and field crushers made it possible to harvest grapes quickly and move them immediately to fermentation tanks.
The wine grape
Color, size, and form of the berry; juice composition (including flavor); ripening period; and disease resistance are just a few of the traits that distinguish the hundreds of grape varieties that have been created, with more than 5,000 documented forV. vinifera alone. They are cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and a wide range of winemaking procedures are used to create the wines that are made from them. All of these conceivable differences contribute to the wide range of wines that are now available on the market.