Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are major factors in different styles of wine.
- 1 Where did wine originally come from?
- 2 Does wine come from grapes?
- 3 How is wine made?
- 4 Who first created wine?
- 5 Who invented the alcohol?
- 6 When was wine first made?
- 7 Where are wines found?
- 8 Can kids drink wine?
- 9 Is wine from France?
- 10 Is alcohol added to wine?
- 11 Is wine made of alcohol?
- 12 Does wine have alcohol?
- 13 Who made wine in the Bible?
- 14 Why is it called wine?
- 15 Which came first red or white wine?
- 16 Where Did Wine Come From? The True Origin of Wine
- 17 Where Does Wine Really Come From?
- 17.1 So what happened?
- 17.2 Pulling back the curtain
- 17.3 Is the wine world ready for an old, new world order?
- 18 The Top 15 Wine-Producing Countries in the World
- 19 A Curious and Captivating History of Wine
- 20 When and Where Did Winemaking Begin?
- 21 Ancient World Wine vs. Old World Wine vs. New World Wine
- 22 History of Wine Timeline
- 23 Your Wine Has a Story
- 24 ‘World’s oldest wine’ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia
- 25 Traditional methods
- 26 More on this story
- 27 wine
- 28 History
- 29 Enology: scientific winemaking
- 30 The wine grape
Where did wine originally come from?
Georgia is generally considered the ‘cradle of wine’, as archaeologists have traced the world’s first known wine creation back to the people of the South Caucasus in 6,000BC. These early Georgians discovered grape juice could be turned into wine by burying it underground for the winter.
Does wine come from grapes?
While there have been wines made with infusions of fruits, spices and other flavorings, modern wines are made solely from grapes, and their flavors come solely from the grapes themselves and from the winemaking process.
How is wine made?
White wine is made by fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice; the skins are removed and play no further role. During this fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide.
Who first created wine?
Research has suggested that wine originated between 6000 and 3000 B.C. between the Nile and the Persian Gulf, in the territories of modern Iran and Georgia. In fact the data indicates that it may have happened by accident when wild yeast fermented the grapes that people there stored as food.
Who invented the alcohol?
Fermented beverages existed in early Egyptian civilization, and there is evidence of an early alcoholic drink in China around 7000 B.C. In India, an alcoholic beverage called sura, distilled from rice, was in use between 3000 and 2000 B.C.
When was wine first made?
The earliest remnants of wine were discovered in the site of Hajji Firuz Tepe, in the northern Zagros Mountains of Iran. The wine dated back to the Neolithic period (8500-4000 B.C.). Carbon dating confirmed the wine was from sometime between 5400-5000 B.C.
Where are wines found?
Current evidence suggests that wine originated in West Asia including Caucasus Mountains, Zagros Mountains, Euphrates River Valley, and Southeastern Anatolia. This area spans a large area that includes the modern day nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, northern Iran, and eastern Turkey.
Can kids drink wine?
There is no acceptable amount of alcohol that is considered safe for children. Children metabolize alcohol faster than adults. This means that even a small amount of alcohol can lead to higher blood-alcohol concentrations. This can lead to low blood sugar, coma, and problems regulating body temperature.
Is wine from France?
France is one of the largest wine producers in the world, along with Italian, Spanish, and American wine-producing regions. French wine traces its history to the 6th century BC, with many of France’s regions dating their wine-making history to Roman times.
Is alcohol added to wine?
Fermentation is probably the most critical step in wine production — it’s when alcohol is created. To trigger this chemical reaction, yeast is sometimes added into the tanks with the grapes. The added yeast converts the grape sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide, giving the wine its alcohol content.
Is wine made of alcohol?
Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are major factors in different styles of wine.
Does wine have alcohol?
Whether you drink beer, wine or spirits, they all contain the same type of alcohol called ethanol. This is created when either fruits or grains are fermented to produce alcohol drinks. Liqueurs, which are also spirits-based, generally contain less alcohol and their ABV may be below 20%.
Who made wine in the Bible?
After the account of the great flood, the biblical Noah is said to have cultivated a vineyard, made wine, and become intoxicated. Thus, the discovery of fermentation is traditionally attributed to Noah because this is the first time alcohol appears in the Bible.
Why is it called wine?
“Wine” comes from the Old English word “win” (which is pronounced like “wean”). The Old English form was descended from the Latin “vinum,” or as the Romans wrote it, “VINVM.” “Vinum” in Latin seems to be related to the Latin word for vineyard, “vinea.” But I’ve also read that “vinum” can mean “vine” in Latin too.
Which came first red or white wine?
Probably red. Archeological evidence uncovered in Georgia shows that wine making had become a major part of human culture at least as far back as 6,000 BCE and the oldest wine making facility yet discovered was from 2,000 BCE Armenia. The naturally occuring, wild grapes in the region would have produced a red wine.
Where Did Wine Come From? The True Origin of Wine
What was the source of the wine? It wasn’t France, either. It was also not Italy. The ordinary wine grape, Vitis vinifera, sometimes known as “the common wine grape,” has an interesting origin story! Let’s take a look at the history of wine. According to the most recent evidence, wine grapes originated in West Asia.
Where is The True Origin of Wine?
According to current evidence, wine originated in West Asia, namely in the Caucasus Mountains, Zagros Mountains, Euphrates River Valley, and Southeastern Anatolia, among other places. As a whole, this region encompasses the modern-day nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, northern Iran, and eastern Turkey, as well as parts of the former Soviet Union. An ancient winery site in Armenia, grape residue discovered in clay jars in Georgia, and indicators of grape domestication in eastern Turkey are among the evidence of wine manufacturing dating back to between 6,000 BC and 4,000 BC, according to archaeologists.
The Shulaveri-Shomu people (also known as the “Shulaveri-Shomutepe Culture”) are thought to have been the first people in this area to make wine.
Some instances of what we’ve learnt about the history of wine may be found below.
Wine in 6,000 BC
Organic chemicals identified in ancient Georgian pottery have been linked to the production of wine in a region in the Southern Caucasus. The earthenware pots, known as Kvevri (or Qvevri), may still be found in use in Georgian winemaking today. This offer expires on January 31! From now through the end of January, you may save money by purchasing only one book on wine and one digital course. Read on to find out more
Wild Vines in Southeastern Anatolia
José Vouillimoz (a grape “ampelologist”) discovered a location in Turkey where wild grape vines are genetically similar to farmed grape vines via research into grape genetics. This study lends credence to the hypothesis that a convergence zone between cultivated and wild vines might have served as the site of the first winemaking operations.
A Relic Winery Unearthed in Armenia
The earliest known winery (4,100 BC) may be found in a collection of caverns outside the Armenian town of Areni, which is located near the border with Turkey. The community is still well-known for its winemaking, and it produces red wines from a grape grown in the area that goes by the name of Areni. Areni is thought to be hundreds of years old, and it is still available for consumption today! To the civilizations of Greece and Phoenicia we owe our understanding of the dispersal of wine grapes across European history.
Ancient Wine Influencers: The Phoenicians and Greeks
Wine vines traveled from West Asia to the Mediterranean, following cultures as they spread throughout the continent. The Phoenicians and the Greeks, among other seafaring civilizations, were responsible for spreading wine over most of Europe. As grapevines were introduced to various environments, they gradually evolved to adapt to the new environment. The mutations resulted in the development of new grape varieties, often known as “cultivars,” within the wine grape species. This explains why we have many thousands of grapes in our vineyard today!
- The number of types depicted in each nation corresponds to the number of varieties currently in use in contemporary wine production today.
- The importance of diversity cannot be overstated.
- In addition, different grape varieties flourish in different climates and soils.
- Unfortunately, the high demand for popular grape varieties has resulted in a reduction in the quantity of natural diversity in the world.
- Planting grapes that are known to you is more frequent than you may expect.
For example, around 50 grape varieties account for approximately 70% of the world’s vineyards. According to current vineyard figures, there are more than 700,000 acres (288,400 hectares) of Cabernet Sauvignon planted. Some uncommon types, on the other hand, can only be found in a single vineyard!
Drink New Wines From Old Grapes
If you enjoy wine, make an effort to explore various varieties; this will help to broaden your palate. This is why we’ve put up a basic collection of more than 100 grape types that you might like trying! I hope you enjoyed this look into the history of wine and that you would go at the collection below. More Information on Grapes
Where Does Wine Really Come From?
When you think of wine, the first thing that springs to mind is probably one of the world’s great wine regions, such as Bordeaux, Napa, or Champagne. Alternatively, grapes like as Pinot Noir, Malbec, Riesling, and Cabernet Sauvignon can be used. However, a rising number of winemakers in the Middle East, Western Asia, and Eastern Europe are keen to remind the world that they represent some of the world’s oldest wine-producing regions, and that they are creating wines that are unlike anything else on the planet.
- While it is difficult to pinpoint the exact location of the first fermented grape beverage, scholars have traced the origins of domesticated grapes to a region near the headwaters of the Tigris River in Turkey, where they believe they originated.
- Patrick McGovern, scientific director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Healthat the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, has traveled widely around the region in search of an answer to this question.
- Gregory Areshian is a professor at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) McGovern, dubbed “The Indiana Jones of Alcohol,” is credited for discovering what he thinks to be the grapes that are the foundation of contemporary winemaking practices.
- In order to produce fruit, they require pollination between plants to occur.
- José Vouillamoz, a Swiss grape geneticist who works near the churning headwaters of the Tigris, discovered a spontaneous mutation—hermaphroditic vines that could self-pollinate and produced higher harvests of fruit.
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- These formed the building blocks of the wine we consume today.
There is evidence to suggest that the Etruscans did not begin shipping their first wine in amphorae vessels to France until around 600 BCE.
So what happened?
Since the beginning of time, winemaking has been an important aspect of life and culture in this region of the world. We do not, on the other hand, speak with the same respect about locations such as Kakheti in Georgia, Central Anatolia in Turkey, or the Bekka Valley in Lebanon as we do about Bordeaux.
If the rise of interest in natural wines and offbeat winemaking techniques are any indication, maybe you’ll soon see Georgia and Lebanon featured as prominently as Bordeaux on wine lists.
Each region had a unique set of circumstances that contributed to the slowing down of the wine industry. As a result of the ancient Ottoman Empire’s prohibition on alcohol, Turkey has developed a society with tight alcohol prohibitions in comparison to its Western neighbors, and today, an estimated 83 percent of Turks still identify as teetotalers. Lebanon was ravaged by a civil war that lasted from 1975 to 1990, making labor in the fields exceedingly risky and destroying many ancient vineyards, many of which have just lately been restored.
“The Soviets were more concerned with quantity than with quality,” Uzunashvili explains.
The Soviet leadership imposed additional output quotas and stifled technological advancement.
Pulling back the curtain
Producers wish to promote wines created from distinctive local grapes that have been neglected in more well-known winemaking locations in the future, according to their vision.
Rkatsiteli is so ingrained in the region’s culture that local religious lore contends it was the first vine planted by Noah after the biblical flood.
In Georgia, for example, the town of Saperavi is a source of national pride. It’s one of the few teinturier grapes, which means that both the meat and the skin of the grape are red, that is employed in single-varietal production. Even though it contributes for the great bulk of the country’s red-wine output, it is only sometimes seen outside of the region, with the exception of a few scattered plantings in New York’s Finger Lakes region. In the Soviet Union, Rkatsiteli, an acidic white variety, was the most regularly planted grape until 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev began paying farmers to uproot their vines as part of a statewide drive to combat alcoholism.
- Researchers have not yet uncovered a genetic “parent” grape that can be traced back to a certain variety.
- Georgian Qvevri has been laid to rest / Photograph courtesy Georgian wines are made from grapes that are grown in Georgia.
- This amphora differs significantly from other conventional forms in that the qvevri are hidden beneath the surface of the vessel, allowing for better temperature regulation.
- With its honey and apricot aromas, the grape lends itself to the production of the country’s distinctive sweet wines, while companies such as Highland Cellars also offer notable dry 100-percent Voskehat bottlings that are worth seeking out.
- Although it is poorly recognized outside of Armenia, the grape is being exploited by producers like asKataroto to produce high-quality dry red wines of distinction.
- Yacoubian-Hobbs is a partnership between Vahe and Viken Yacoubian and winemaker Paul Hobbs.
- Semina Consulting executive director Vahe Keushguerian points out that just approximately 10 percent of Armenian grapes are grafted, as the country was spared from the phylloxera disease that virtually wiped out European wine production in the late nineteenth century.
- Despite this, Château Musarin the Bekaa Valley, which was created in 1930 and has been producing high-quality wines for decades, continues to thrive.
Chateau Musar’s wine shop on the Avenue des Francais in Beirut, about 1933 / Photograph courtesy of the author In addition, Turkey’s seven wine-growing areas, which produce between 600 and 1,200 indigenous kinds of vinifera grapes, have enjoyed a comeback in recent years, according to Château Musar (only about 60 are being cultivated commercially).
In recent years, European grape varieties like as Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Riesling have been introduced to the country’s vineyards.
However, producers such as Kavklidere, the country’s oldest winery, have built their reputations on the use of indigenous grapes such as the white Narince grape and the red Kalecik Karasi grape, which was resurrected from the verge of extinction.
Is the wine world ready for an old, new world order?
The majority of winemakers from these historic areas say that the largest hurdle to their international success is a lack of recognition in Western markets, particularly in the United States. Producers have attempted to boost awareness of these wines in order to persuade skeptic customers and importers to purchase them. Are casual wine drinkers ready to branch out and try something new? As interest in natural wines and unconventional winemaking processes continues to grow, it is possible that Georgia and Lebanon may soon be listed on wine lists alongside Bordeaux and other great wines of the world.
After all, they’ve been around since the beginning of the world.
The Top 15 Wine-Producing Countries in the World
Did you know that only four countries create more than half of the world’s wine today? While wine production across the world has a long history, did you know that only four nations produce more than half of the world’s wine today? As wine production continues to grow in the world’s leading wine producing countries (Italy, France, Spain, the United States), new and unexpected countries are gaining prominence due to both their increased wine production and the great quality of the wines they make.
- Italians are serious about their wine: when you combine a lengthy history of wine-making (dating back to Greek colonization), a perfect climate, and more than a million vines, it’s easy to understand why Italy is the world’s leading wine producer.
- In Italy’s vineyards, there are approximately 500 different grape kinds grown, and both red and white wines are made there.
- What would a list of wineries be without a mention of France?
- France, like many other nations, has been adversely affected by climate change, which has resulted in a drop in wine output prior to 2018.
- Bordeaux, Pinot Noir, and Champagne are among the wines to sample.
- Despite this, Spanish wines are renowned for their unique flavor and are particularly popular among Spaniards, owing to high domestic consumption rates and inexpensive wine prices in the country.
- Related:Try out a couple of Spanish wine cocktail classics, Sangria and kalimotxo, using recipes from our collection of wine cocktail recipes.
⭐ Purchase wines named after regions from the regions themselves, such as Sherry or Bordeaux, and you’ll be obtaining the greatest wines in the world!
Winemaking has only been a part of American history for a few centuries, and wines made in the United States and other non-European countries are referred to as “New World wines.” The classic European grape variety, Vitis vinifera, is used to make the vast majority of American wines.
Cabernet Sauvignon is a kind of grape that is grown in the United States.
Check out Corkbeard’s interview with JustWine to find out more about us and our wines.
The majority of Argentina’s wine grape plants are grown at higher elevations, such as in the Mendoza area, where 80 percent of the country’s wine is made.
In spite of the fact that it is just next door, Chile is significantly different from its neighbor Argentina, lacking the high mountains but more than compensating with hot summers and maritime breezes to produce 9.5 to almost 13 million hectoliters of wine per year.
In addition to white wines, Chile is also noted for its red wines, which are particularly well-suited to chilly temperatures.
All Australian states produce wine, albeit the majority of vineyards are concentrated in the southern states.
Wines to try: Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon are two excellent choices.
As a result, current Chinese wines are heavily influenced by French styles, and Hong Kong has become the world’s largest market for fine wines.
Longyan, Bordeaux blends such as Marselan and Cabernet Gernischt (Carménère), and Chandon are some of the wines to explore.
The majority of Germany’s wine output is white wine, which is due to the fact that white grapes grow in milder climes.
Red grapes have been introduced to vineyards around the country in recent decades, as interest in both producing and enjoying red wines has grown.
Since then, wine production in South Africa has remained concentrated in and around Cape Town, which serves as one of the country’s capitals.
In part due to its geographical position and multicultural population, South Africa’s wines are a blend of Old World and New World styles.
Pinotage is a hybrid of the grape varieties Pinot Noir and Cinsaut.
Pinotage Portugal offers a wide variety of wines, ranging from red and white to rosé and sparkling wines, all made from grape varietals produced in the country.
Visit the Douro Valley and Pico Island, two of Portugal’s most famous wine areas (as well as UNESCO World Heritage sites), if you ever find yourself in the country.
Port and Madeira are two wines to try.
Because grapes from both local and foreign varietals are produced in the country, each region produces a wine that is distinct from the others.
Try the following wines: Feteasca Regala and Crâmposie Wine production is concentrated in a few sections of the nation, such as the Black Sea region, because much of Russia, like Canada, is unsuitable for grape growth throughout most of the country.
With the expansion of new wineries in the twenty-first century, Russia is emerging as a promising wine producer.
Hungary’s winemaking has been influenced by a variety of cultures, with the Romans, Hungarian tribes, and the Ottomans all having played a role in the country’s history, as well as wine grapes brought from Italy and France.
Wines to try: Tokaji asz and Egri Bikavér are two excellent choices.
It is possible to find wineries all around the nation, and they are renowned for producing some of the world’s greatest Sauvignon Blanc.
Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir are two wines to explore. Which country’s wines are you most interested in trying? P.S. Are you brand new to the world of wine? Take a look at our simple instructions here: What Are the Different Types of Wine? What Are the Different Types of Wine?
A Curious and Captivating History of Wine
Whether you’re a history geek or not, you have to acknowledge that understanding the narrative behind what you eat, drink, wear, and use — and that includes wine — is a remarkable experience. Making the connection between where it all began and where it is now might help you put things into perspective. Making the connection between the world’s first wine grape and your most recent bottle of wine adds another level to the experience and allows you to appreciate and enjoy it more fully. Take this into consideration as we walk you through the history of wine, including where it originated (hint: it wasn’t France) and how different cultures have produced and consumed it throughout history.
When and Where Did Winemaking Begin?
There’s no denying that the countries of France, Italy, and Spain are linked with wine production and culture. However, France is perhaps the country that can lay claim to the world’s most renowned wine appellations (also known as wine regions), including Bordeaux, which is known as the “wine capital of the world.” France is also the birthplace of some of the world’s most popular grape varietals and wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Champagne, Pinot Noir, and Sauvignon Blanc.
China, according to archeological evidence, was the first country to create wine approximately 7000 BCE.
Armenia, in fact, is home to the world’s oldest vineyard (as well as the world’s oldest shoe!) according to academics.
Clearly, there is a lot more to wine than you may have previously realized.
Ancient World Wine vs. Old World Wine vs. New World Wine
Understanding a few key terms is useful when discussing the history of wine, including the distinctions between “Ancient World” wines, “Old World” wines, and “New World” wines, to name a few examples. More than anything, these wine terms refer to the region in which they are used.
Ancient World Wine
As previously stated, the most well-known wine regions today are not the places where wine was first produced. These historic wine regions — which include China, Armenia, Iran, and Egypt — are where the world’s first winemakers created procedures for fermenting grape juice into alcohol, which they passed on to their descendants.
Old World Wine
Old World wine is produced in traditional wine regions around Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East, which are also the places where viniculture (wine production) first gained popularity and developed. The grapevine used in the creation of Old World wine is known as Vitis vinifera, and it is a common variety. This grape variety is indigenous to the Mediterranean region of the world.
New World Wine
Wine from the New World can originate from almost any other place that isn’t regarded to be ancient or old. New World wine regions include places like Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, and Canada, to name a few. In addition to these countries, there is the United States, with the states of California, Oregon, and Washington being the most well-known wine-producing regions.
TheVitis viniferawine grape is also used in the manufacture of Old World wines, although numerous changes have been made to enable it grow well in the various regions of the world.
History of Wine Timeline
Whether it was thousands of years ago or only a few days ago, the history of any sort of wine begins with the grapes being picked, crushed, and fermented, and the trip continues until the wine is finished. The fermentation process is the most important step, as it is this process that transforms crushed grapes (or grape juice) into wine and other beverages. The history of wine is so extensive that we couldn’t possibly cover every single place, discovery, or development that has occurred throughout the centuries.
Here’s a short rundown of wine’s global travels, as well as how different civilizations have made and drank it throughout history.
Doctor Patrick McGovern, the world’s best wine scientist and anthropologist, claims that the world’s first scientifically verified alcoholic beverage — including wine — was discovered at Jiahu in the Chinese province of Henan in the year 3000 BC. A fermented drink consisting of wild grapes (including the kinds Vitis amurensis and Vitis thunbergiigrape varietals), rice, honey, and hawthorn fruit was created and stored in clay jars from the Early Neolithic Period during this time period. McGovern and his colleagues came to the conclusion that holding sweet fruit with yeast on its skins within these jars provides evidence of how the liquid was fermented, according to the findings.
The data reveals that these alcoholic beverages were used during funeral and religious rites, whatever the situation may be.
In 2016, a team of experts discovered the world’s oldest vineyard in a cave in the Armenian highlands, which they believe to be thousands of years old. In this cave, archaeologists discovered up a drinking bowl and cup, a grape press, and fermentation jars, among other things. It was also confirmed that the wine grapes used were Vitis vinifera, which is the same variety of grape that is used to make most commercial wines today. Because of this, scientists predict that the end product will be equivalent to an unfiltered red wine with a Merlot flavor profile, according to the researchers.
Because that specific cave was previously a prominent cemetery location, experts believe that the wine from Armenia was most likely utilized for funeral rites.
Ancient Egypt was the first civilization to produce wine from red grapes, and it was the first civilization to do so. The amphorae, which are clay jars with a small neck and two handles, were used to keep this ancient wine for storage. Despite the fact that Egypt currently produces very little wine, the country’s past is rich in the art of winemaking (and wine drinking). The act of plucking grapes from the vine, crushing them, and depositing them in amphoras to ferment is shown on the walls of ancient tombs.
In ancient times, wine was utilized in a variety of rites (including funerals) and for medical purposes, according to archaeological discoveries.
Despite the fact that red wine was the most often produced variety of wine in this region, amphorae recovered in Tutankhamun’s tomb provide the first evidence of white wine production in Egypt.
1200 B.C.-539 B.C.
This increasingly popular beverage (and even grapevines themselves) were first transported across the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians, who established trade routes that extended from Greece to Italy and territories throughout modern-day Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, and Syria. Following interaction with Jewish people during their journeys, the Phoenicians adopted the use of wine in religious rites as a result of their encounter. The first recorded reference of wine in the Bible is found in the book of Genesis, when Noah drinks it after surviving the Great Flood.
Because of the Phoenicians, the ancient Greeks were able to begin drinking wine and utilizing it as a symbol for religion, trade, and health, among other things. Wine was so revered in Ancient Greece that it was given its own god, Dionysus, to honor the drink. Wicker baskets were loaded with freshly gathered grapes, which were then crushed before being placed in pithoi, which were enormous clay jars resembling Egyptian amphoras in shape. It was in these jars that the fermenting process took place.
Greeks transported grapevines in the same way that the Phoenicians did.
200 B.C.-100 B.C.
The Romans, following in the footsteps of the Greeks, created their own god of wine, Bacchus. (This is the origin of the term “bacchanalian,” which refers to drunken revelry.) Using barrels and other techniques, the Romans improved upon the Greek method of viniculture, allowing them to produce more at a faster rate and at a lesser cost. Using a torculum (wine press) to crush the grapes and a colander-like instrument to separate the grape juice from the skins, for example, was standard practice in Roman wine manufacturing.
Due to the fact that wine was a part of everyday life for the Romans, unlike the pharaohs of Egypt, this so-called “drink of the gods” was easily accessible to both the rich and the poor.
As the Roman empire expanded over Europe, it began to cultivate grapevines in nations such as modern-day France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and Portugal, among others.
Following Constantine the Great’s reign (306-337), the Catholic Church and Christianity ascended to the position of dominant religious power in the Roman Empire. And with it, wine gained prominence in religious ceremonies, particularly during the celebration of the Eucharist (the consecration of the bread and wine) (also known as communion). This tradition is observed at the Catholic mass to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus Christ and his apostles, with the wine symbolizing the blood of Jesus on the table.
While grape juice is a typical replacement, it is not required.) It is another another example of the long-lasting impact that wine has had on people, not just in terms of social enjoyment, but also in terms of religious practice.
“In 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on the ocean blue,” we’ve all heard the chant. When Christopher Columbus first set sail from Spain on one of his four journeys, he and his crew were surprised to discover the Americas on their journey. In spite of the fact that his “discovery” of the New World was everything but, it did herald the beginning of an age of North and South American exploration (as well as colonialism). Spanish conquistadors invaded Mexico and Brazil on their transatlantic voyages in the 16th century, bringing with them the practice of European grape planting.
Chile’s first winery was founded by Spanish missionaries in the 16th century (not surprising since wine was a mainstay of the Catholic Church by then).
Spanish missionary Junipero Serra moved to San Diego, California, in the late 18th century, when he founded the state’s first mission and the world’s first known vineyard. As the friar and his fellow monks established missions around the state, they continued to cultivate the Mission grape, a cultivar ofVitis vinifera from Spain that is still grown in California. A sweet white wine was created from this grape by fermenting the juice without the skins; a dry and sweet red wine was formed by fermenting the liquid with the skins on; and a sweet fortified wine was made from this grape by adding sugar to the juice.
In the years that followed, other European settlers in Los Angeles expanded their vineyards by planting several European grape varieties.
James Busby, a Scottish-born, British-raised, and Australian-based viticulturist and writer who lived in Australia in the early nineteenth century, heralded the beginning of a new age for wine producing in the geographical region of Oceania. In the course of his extensive study and cross-continental trip between Australia and Europe, he obtained grapevine cuttings from Europe and transplanted them into Australian vines. Eventually, he sent some of these cuttings from Australia to New Zealand, where he planted the country’s first vineyard in the year 1836.
It’s no surprise that he’s referred to as “the father of the Australian wine business.”
1980s to Today
Finally, we’ll come full circle and finish our journey through the history of wine just where we started: in China. During the late 1980s, the Chinese economy had a resurgence, and the country expanded to become one of the world’s greatest consumers and producers of wine. Even while rice wine continues to be the most popular alcoholic beverage in the country, as it has since its inception, grape wine has gained in popularity and recognition. In recent years, however, the overall volume of wine produced in China has decreased dramatically.
Whatever happens next in this story, it’s clear that wine will be around for a long time. The Antarctic continent, in fact, is the only continent on the earth where vineyards do not exist.
Your Wine Has a Story
Knowing how different civilizations have made and used wine throughout history will help you enjoy your wine drinking experience even more. Wine is considerably more than just fermented grapes in a glass, as evidenced by the discovery of the world’s first winery in Armenia, the Phoenicians’ worldwide effect on winemaking, the social and spiritual components of wine in Greco-Roman society, and many other examples. With each drink, you’ll be reminded of a historical lesson that you may enjoy at your leisure.
‘World’s oldest wine’ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia
AFP is the source of this image. Caption for the image Some of the Neolithic jars were adorned with grape designs. 8,000-year-old pottery shards, according to scientists, have shown the world’s earliest evidence of grape wine production. The earthenware jars, which contained residual wine compounds, were discovered in two locations south of the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, according to the researchers. Some of the jars included graphics of grape clusters and a dancing figure on the outside. Previously, the earliest evidence of wine-making had been discovered in north-western Iran, in pottery that had been around for approximately 7,000 years.
For thousands of years, wine has been the centre of religious cults, pharmacopoeias, cuisines, economics, and social life in the ancient Near East.
According to the researchers, the pottery jars were discovered in two Neolithic villages, called Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveris Gora, about 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Tbilisi.The tell-tale chemical signs of wine were discovered in eight jars, with the oldest dating back to approximately 5,980 BC.Large jars called qvevri, similar to the ancient ones, are still used for wine-making in Georgia, according to David Lordkipani
After moving to Paris in the 1990s to study French literature and movies, Jenny Lefcourt and her friends discovered a new variety of wine that they enjoyed drinking a lot more than the others. She recalls that this wine tasted “completely different, and alive, and exquisite,” as she put it. Later, they stumbled onto a taste of the wine offered at one of the neighboring restaurants, which was a pleasant surprise. “It didn’t have a name at the time,” she says, but it was the product that we’ll now refer to as natural wine, and she began importing it in 2000, when she was just starting out.
The industry has evolved into a source of independent social capital, with wine labels that are as closely studied and obsessively collected as music covers were in the ’80s.
Moreover, it has been the topic of passionate dispute in the wine industry, with natural wine purists advocating for its virtues and exhilarating flavor, while traditionalists criticize the perceived defects and even the idealism of natural wine.
However, the history of sulfites makes this difficult to determine; some individuals believe that sulfites, in one form or another, were employed to preserve wine as far back as the seventh century BC.
“People assume that natural wine is a new thing, but it’s the traditional method to create wine,” she says. “It’s a normal wine that’s truly brand new,” says the sommelier. Discover what natural wine is, how we became disenchanted with it — and then reconciled with it — and where it’s headed next.
What it is
Nature-based wines are more of a notion than they are a clearly defined category with widely accepted features. A wine created only from unadulterated fermented grape juice and nothing else is what it is in its purest form. Many individuals — winemakers, distributors, journalists, and sommeliers — are uncomfortable with the phrase “natural wine,” which refers to wine produced without the use of chemicals. Some people prefer the terms “low-intervention” wine, “naked” wine, or “raw” wine instead of “low-intervention.” “It’s simply fucking fermenting juice,” Scruggs describes her product as.
- The following essay is written with the assumption that natural wine is not a fake and that its advocates are not crazy, but rather that it is a hotly discussed and endlessly difficult issue that never fails to elicit passionate responses from a wide range of people.
- Grasp natural wine necessitates a fundamental understanding of the winemaking process, which is often difficult.
- Natural wine, on the other hand, is produced from grapes that have not been treated with pesticides or herbicides.
- When it comes to turning those handpicked grapes into juice, natural winemakers rely on native yeast, which is the stuff that’s whizzing around in the air and will land on grapes if you leave them in a vat for a long enough period of time, to kickstart natural fermentation.
- And, in contrast to the majority of traditional winemakers, they do not utilize any chemicals (such as false oak taste, sugar, acid, egg white, or other additions) throughout the winemaking procedure.
- Some natural winemakers may use a small amount of sulfites on occasion.
- Natural winemakers either do not use sulfites at all or use them in very small amounts, whereas conventional winemakers use up to ten times as much as natural winemakers.
The purest of the pure — organically fermented grape juice that contains no sulfites — is referred to as “zero-zero,” which refers to the absence of any additional ingredients.
It is typically regarded permissible in natural wine circles to add small amounts of sulfites at the bottling stage (between 10 and 35 parts per million), which are generally thought to be between 10 and 35 parts per million.
In the United States, the maximum allowed concentration is 350 parts per million.
However, this is not always the case.
In Scruggs’ opinion, “there’s a common misperception that natural wine is one thing – that it has a “funky” or “unclean” taste.” In my opinion, this is an injustice.
According to Pascaline Lepeltier, a long-time natural wine advocate, “Whatever you prefer as a more conventional wine consumer, you can find an alternative wherever in the globe.” Lastly, there’s glou-glou, a popular form of natural wine that’s meant to be consumed without having to worry about what you’re drinking.
What it isn’t
Winemaking that is considered “conventional” — often known as “non-natural” winemaking — is defined by the use of technology. When it comes to the vineyard, pesticides and herbicides are used to get the desired results. Laboratory-grown yeast (to control fermentation and taste), acid (to boost the wine’s acidity, which in turn might help the wine age more gracefully), and sulfites (added at the time of bottling) are the most common forms of intervention in the cellar (to preserve flavor). Many winemakers also use sugar, which does not make the wine sweeter, but rather gives the impression of having “body” since it turns into alcohol when exposed to heat.
According to Lefcourt, owner of JennyFrancois Selections, “a lot of wine is a grape product, plus all of these millions of additives to make a product that is reliably the same every year.” “It’s similar to Coca-Cola.” Clarifying wine with egg white and isinglass, which is manufactured from fish bladders, is a common practice that results in many bottles being non-vegan despite the fact that they are not labeled as such.
Marcel Lapierre is a French winemaker who specializes in “natural” Beaujolais wines.
Technological advancements are the most significant element in this transformation: Pesticides began widely used following World War II, when troops sprayed their sleeping bags with DDT to prevent the spread of sickness; commercial yeast first appeared on the market in the mid-’60s, and now it is used in a variety of applications.
- We owe a debt of gratitude to American wine critic Robert Parker, who in the 1980s devised a 100-point wine rating system.
- As Parker’s reputation grew, his ratings began to have a substantial impact on wine sales.
- The homogeneity of what people considered to be good wine began to take place when this began to happen, according to Lefcourt.
- This goes to the heart of a long-running discussion between natural wine devotees and others who believe they have gone off the rails: Is the “best” wine produced with the least amount of intervention?
Or is it produced by seasoned, well-informed winemakers who are striving to create a specific outcome that is representative of their region and traditions? This discussion is unlikely to come to a halt anytime soon.
Where it came from, and where it’s going
Technological involvement defines “conventional” winemaking, which is slang for “non-natural” wine. Pesticides and herbicides are used in the vineyard to control pests and weed growth. Generally, intervention occurs in the cellar in the form of lab-grown yeast (to control the fermentation process and manage taste), acid (to boost the wine’s acidity, which in turn might help the wine age more gracefully), and sulfites (which are added at the time of bottling) (to preserve flavor). Many winemakers also use sugar, which does not make the wine sweeter, but rather gives the impression of “body” since it turns into alcohol when exposed to heat.
- There are also more than 60 permitted additives that American winemakers may employ to modify their wines without having to include them on the label.
- Clarifying wine with egg white and isinglass, which is manufactured from fish bladders, is common practice.
- Winemaker Marcel Lapierre from Beaujolais, France, is known for his “natural” Beaujolais.
- In this transformation, technological advancements have had the greatest impact.
- A minor but important role has also been performed by the critics of fine wines.
- Parker positioned himself as the first wine reviewer who was not affected by business interests, and as a consumer advocate who was objective in his assessments.
- As a result, winemakers began to manipulate their products to better suit Parker’s preferences.
- A major argument exists between natural wine enthusiasts and others who believe they have gone off the rails on whether the “best” wine is produced with the least amount of manipulation.
It might also be produced by seasoned, well-informed winemakers who are attempting to create a specific outcome that is representative of their region and traditions. In all likelihood, this discussion will continue indefinitely.
One last thing: What about hangovers?
Natural wine is frequently touted as having less side effects, such as hangovers. A lot of individuals (including Goop) believe that the sulfites in normal wine might increase the effects of alcohol the following morning. A lot of folks think it’s a load of baloney. “I don’t believe in drinking water hangovers,” adds Scruggs. “I don’t believe it has anything to do with sulfur because it is already a naturally occurring byproduct.” Drink responsibly and don’t be an idiot.Sign up for The Goods newsletter.
“Yes, there are producers pushing an extreme amount of it — but usually it’s bulk wine and it’s the additives that don’t have to be listed.”
The fermented juice of the grape is known as wine. One species of the grape genus Vitis, V. vinifera (commonly referred to as the European grape), is used almost exclusively in the production of wine. Wines made from V. labrusca, a native American grape variety, as well as from other grape varieties are also regarded to be wines in some circles. The name of the fruit is incorporated when other fruits are fermented to form a type of wine, as in the names peach wine and blackberry wine.
Vitis vinifera was already being farmed in the Middle East by 4000 BCE, and it is likely that it was even earlier. Egyptian documents going back to 2500 BC that mention the utilization of grapes for wine production, as well as several biblical allusions to wine, provide evidence of the industry’s early development and significance in the Middle East. TheGreekshad a thriving wine trade and brought grapes from the Black SeatoSpain to their colonies, where they were planted. The Romans introduced grape growing into the valleys of the Rhine and Moselle (which became the great wine regions of Germany and Alsace), the Danube (which defined the great wine regions of Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, and Austria), and the Rhône, Saône, Garonne, Loire, and Marne (which define the great French wine regions of Rhône, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Loire, and Champagne, respectively).
- Quiz on the Encyclopedia Britannica Quick-fire question: Champagne What is the origin of the word champagne?
- Pour some bubbly into your glass and take this quick quiz to see how much you know about the beverage.
- In the mid-16th century, Spanish missionaries introduced viticulture to Chile and Argentina, and in the 18th century, they brought it toBaja California.
- viniferagrapes began to sprout and flourish.
- From the southern missions, the center of viticulture in California moved northward, concentrating in the Central Valley and the northern counties of Sonoma, Napa, and Mendocino.
- Between 1870 and 1900, the arrival of the eastern American rootlouse, phylloxera, posed a significant danger to wine businesses across the world, damaging vineyards practically anywhere Vitis vinifera was cultivated, but particularly in Europe, Australia, and sections of California.
- viniferascions (separated shoots and buds) onto species indigenous to the eastern United States, which proved to be almost totally immune to phylloxera.
Today, additional wine-producing nations have enacted legislation that is comparable to the previous legislation.
Enology: scientific winemaking
Prior to the nineteenth century, nothing was understood about the fermentation process or the factors that contribute to rotting. The Greeks stored their wine in earthenware amphorae, and the Romans improved the quality of their oaken cooperage, but both civilizations probably consumed almost all of their wines within a year of harvest and disguised spoilage by adding such flavorings as honey, herbs, cheese, and salt water to the wine they were drinking. Wooden barrels were the primary aging containers until the 17th century, when widespread manufacture of glass bottles and the discovery of the corkstopper enabled wines to be matured in bottles for extended periods of time.
- Pasteur also discovered the germs that cause wine to rot and invented a heating procedure (later known as pasteurization) to eliminate the bacteria that caused the spoilage.
- Advanced plant physiology and disease research have also contributed to improved vine training and reduced mildew damage to grapes.
- Steel fermentation and storage tanks are easy to clean and can be cooled to exact temperatures, thanks to their stainless steel construction.
- Beginning in the 1960s, the adoption of mechanized grape harvesters and field crushers made it possible to harvest grapes quickly and move them immediately to fermentation tanks.
The wine grape
The process of fermentation and the reasons of spoiling were not well understood prior to the 19th century. The Greeks stored their wine in earthenware amphorae, and the Romans improved the quality of their oaken cooperage, but both civilizations probably consumed almost all of their wines within a year of harvest and disguised spoilage by adding such flavorings as honey, herbs, cheese, and salt water to the wine to disguise it. Wooden barrels were the primary aging containers until the 17th century, when widespread manufacture of glass bottles and the discovery of the corkstopper enabled wines to be matured in bottles for extended periods of time.
The bacteria that degrade wine were also recognized by Pasteur, who developed a heating technique (later known as pasteurization) to destroy the germs.
Advanced plant physiology and disease research have also contributed to improved vine training and reduced mildew damage to grapes.
Steel fermentation and storage tanks are easy to clean and can be cooled to exact temperatures, making them ideal for food processing.
Bacterial contact in the air is reduced thanks to automated, enclosed racking and filtration systems, among other measures. Using automated grape harvesters and field crushers, which first appeared in the 1960s, enabled for faster harvesting and transport into fermentation tanks.