What Makes a Wine Dry or Sweet? The term “dry”, when talking about wine, refers to the taste it leaves in your mouth because of the amount of sugars remaining in the wine after fermentation. During the winemaking process, the sugars in the grapes are converted into alcohol using a fermentation process.
What is dry wine?
- A dry wine is simply a wine that has no residual sugar, meaning it isn’t sweet. When grape juice converts to wine, alcohol is produced in the fermentation process because yeast eats the sugar present in the juice.
- 1 How can you tell if a wine is dry?
- 2 Is dry wine better than sweet?
- 3 Is dry wine stronger than sweet wine?
- 4 What kind of wine is dry?
- 5 Is Riesling a dry wine?
- 6 Is Moscato a dry wine?
- 7 Does a dry wine have more alcohol?
- 8 Is Chardonnay dry or sweet?
- 9 Which red wine is most dry?
- 10 Dry Wine: What It Is and Your Guide to the Best Types
- 11 What Is Dry Wine?
- 12 Types of Dry Wine
- 13 Ditch the Sugar With Dry Wines
- 14 What does it mean to describe a wine as “dry,” “sweet” or “semi-dry”?
- 15 What Is Dry Wine? Our Guide To Dry Wines
- 16 What Does ‘Dry Red Wine’ Mean?
- 17 Wines Listed from Dry to Sweet (Charts)
- 18 What Does Dry Wine Mean?
- 19 Why Do We Call It Dry Wine?
- 20 For moreTASTE Food Questions,subscribe to our podcastTASTE DailyonApple PodcastsandSpotify. It’s also free to add to your Alexa flash briefings. Justadd the TASTE Daily Skill.
- 21 What is Dry Wine?
- 22 “Dry” is a Technical Wine Term
- 23 The Fermentation Process of Dry Wine
- 24 So What’s Up with that Fruity Smell?
- 25 Understanding the difference between Dry Vs Sweet Wines
- 26 Post navigation
- 27 What Exactly Makes a “Dry” Wine Dry?
- 28 What is “dry” wine?
- 29 Okay, so is dry wine the kind that makes my mouth pucker?
- 30 How do I find out if I like dry wine?
- 31 The Difference Between Dry Wine and Sweet Wine • Winetraveler
- 32 Common Factors That Make a Wine Sweet or Dry
- 33 Factors That Affect What We Perceive as Sweet or Dry
- 34 Popular Sweet and Dry Wines
- 35 What Is the Driest Wine?
- 36 What Makes a Wine ‘Dry?’
- 37 Get fresh food news delivered to your inbox
How can you tell if a wine is dry?
Below 1% sweetness, wines are considered dry. Above 3% sweetness, wines taste “off-dry,” or semi-sweet. Wines above 5% sweetness are noticeably sweet! Dessert wines start at around 7–9% sweetness.
Is dry wine better than sweet?
Upon comparing dry wines with sweet wines, it’s safe to conclude that dry wines are healthier than sweet wines because it has low amounts of sugar. High amounts of sugar in the human body can cause health problems like heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure.
Is dry wine stronger than sweet wine?
Rough rules of thumb say if a wine’s alcohol content is 10% or less it will have sweet characteristics. Wines that are even lower (especially down around 8 or 9 percent) will definitely be sweet. Wines in the 11% to 12.5% ABV range are considered ‘off-dry’ meaning that there is some notable residual sugar.
What kind of wine is dry?
Dry white wines include Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Grigio, and Chardonnay with wines like Riesling moving towards the semi-sweet end of the spectrum. Similarity, red wines that are considered dry are Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Pinot Noir, Malbec, and Tempranillo.
Is Riesling a dry wine?
When it comes to wine, the opposite of dry is not wet, but sweet. Since most folks don’t go around carrying hydrometers and such to measure the actual sugar level of a wine, the term “dry” usually refers to the perception of a lack of sweetness. It’s not the most useful tasting term—most table wines are dry.
Is Moscato a dry wine?
The wine is generally off-dry to sweet and ranges in effervescence levels from frizzante to spumante. Moscato d’Asti begins its vinification like any other wine.
Does a dry wine have more alcohol?
Second, dry wines are often associated with having a higher alcohol content. Remember that dry wines simply have little to no residual sugar levels, the term “dry” doesn’t have anything to do with alcohol content. High alcohol wines are not always dry.
Is Chardonnay dry or sweet?
Rosés can be sweet or dry, but most lean towards dry. Old World (Europe) rosés are typically very dry. Rosés produced in the New World (not Europe) are usually sweeter and fruitier. Aside from grape type, climate and production methods contribute to these differences.
Which red wine is most dry?
The driest red wine for most producers is Cabernet Sauvignon. Another great option for a very dry red wine is Merlot. Both of these wines have very low residual sugar and a dray flavor profile.
Dry Wine: What It Is and Your Guide to the Best Types
When you drink wine, you should have a dynamic, enjoyable, and tasty experience. There is something for everyone in the world of wine, thanks to the hundreds of distinct varietals and flavors available. Tasting notes range from sweet and flowery to citric and earthy, and they are found in everything from full-bodied reds to crisp rosés. Despite the fact that wine is enjoyable, it can also be perplexing at times, particularly when it comes to comprehending the lingo while attempting to choose your next bottle of wine.
What does it mean to characterize a liquid as “dry”?
In this post, we’ll explain what the term “dry” actually means when it comes to wine, as well as the many sorts of dry wines you should experiment with.
What Is Dry Wine?
Dry wine as a description is difficult to understand since most of us use the phrase in the incorrect context when we think about it. Our tendency is to think of dry wines as having a sensory component, equating them with wines that leave us with an aftertaste of dryness after each drink. While that sensation is a common element of wine consumption, it is really related to wines that are strong in tannins rather than wines that are defined as dry by their taste profile. When it comes down to it, the underlying meaning of the word “dry wine” is focused on the composition of the wine.
- As a result, dry wines are not typically associated with sweet wines.
- Other components of wine’s composition, including as tannins and alcohol levels, play a vital part in determining the overall flavor character of the beverage.
- This results in the production of carbon dioxide, which assists in the production of alcohol content.
- Winemakers that create dry wines enable the yeast to devour all of the sweet material, resulting in no residual sugar remaining in the finished product.
- Some of the most popular varieties of dry wine include the following selections.
Types of Dry Wine
Wines can contain varying amounts of naturally occurring sugars, depending on the winemaking procedure employed. Dry wines include less than one percent sugar, with an average of 4 grams of sugar per liter of wine. Sweet wines contain more than one percent sugar. Dry wines are divided into several subcategories, the most notable of which being medium-dry wines and off-dry wines. Medium-dry wines include fewer than 12 grams of sugar per liter of volume, whereas semi-dry and off-dry wines contain 10-30 grams of sugar per liter of volume, respectively.
First and foremost, fruity wines are not synonymous with sweet wines.
Second, dry wines are frequently connected with having a greater percentage of alcohol by volume.
Wines with high alcohol content are not usually dry. The truth is, many dessert wines from Hungary and France, such as the famous Sauternes and Tokaji, have high alcohol content while also being very sweet due to the presence of residual sugar.
Very Dry White Wine
Generally speaking, very dry white wines have fewer than 4 grams of residual sugar and are popular among wine enthusiasts who enjoy crisp and dry aromas. Beyond the possibilities listed below, Albario and Torrontés are also exceptionally dry white wines that may be enjoyed on their own.
Generally speaking, very dry white wines have fewer than 4 grams of residual sugar and are popular among wine lovers who want crisp and dry characteristics. Beyond the possibilities listed here, Albario and Torrontés are also extremely dry white wines.
Dry white wines such as Chardonnay are also quite popular. Varieties from Burgundy, as well as California and Washington, may be found in this category. Fruit aromas like apples and tropical fruits are abundant in this wine, which has a relatively low sugar level for its style. As a result of its barrel-aging in oak, this white wine develops flavors of vanilla and toasted nuts. If you’re cooking with butter and cream, or making risotto, Chardonnay is a fantastic complement.
Muscadet (pronounced musk-uh-day), which is not to be confused with Muscat or Moscato, is created from Melon de Bourgogne grapes and is a sparkling wine. The characteristics of this dry wine from the Loire Valley are crisp and acidic, with hints of citrus on the palate. With buttery oysters, delicious mussels, or grilled scallops, serve a few bottles of Muscadet on the side.
Medium-Dry White Wines
Semi-dry white wines have 1-3 percent residual sugar, whilst dry white wines do not. In addition to the dry wines listed below, there are also dry versions of Pinot Blanc, Viognier, Gewürztraminer, and Riesling available.
Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris
Dry Pinot Grigio wines are produced in Italy, France, Germany, and the United States, among other places. Wines from Italy’s Pinot Grigio have mineral undertones, but those from France’s Alsace are more fruit-forward. You may serve it with an antipasti platter filled with shellfish and marinated fish, or you can have it with a buffalo burger topped with melted mozzarella cheese.
Dieses Austrian wine is renowned for its distinctive taste profile, which mixes contrasting flavors of peach with pepper, spices, and other herbs. It’s a dry wine with citrus aromas that’s excellent for sipping while lounging in the sun on a warm summer day.
Champagne and Sparkling Wines
Champagne (sometimes known as sparkling wine when it is manufactured outside of the Champagne region of France) is a popular dry white wine produced in the Champagne region of France. There are various distinct varieties of champagne, each of which is distinguished by the amount of sugar it contains. There are three types of whiskey: doux, which includes 5 percent or more residual sugar, and extra brut, which has less than 0.6 percent residual sugar. Brut wine has 1.5 percent residual sugar, while extra sec contains 1.2-2 percent residual sugar, resulting in wines that are medium-dry.
If you have a sweet craving, the doux is the way to go. Try a medium-dry brut or extra sec, which has more sugar than brut wine but is less sweet than doux, for a more middle-of-the-road approach. Are you looking for a sparkling wine or champagne that is very dry? Try the extra brut for a change.
Dry Red Wines
Dry red wines are produced all over the world, from France to South America and the United States, among others. Other dry red wines to consider include Black Muscat, Malbec, Touriga Nacional, and Grenache, in addition to the alternatives listed below.
This tannic red wine is substantial and strong, with flavors of green olives, cherries, and herbs among its many flavor components. Grapes used to make Cabernet Sauvignon include Merlot and Cabernet Franc, which are combined to create this wine. At your next dinner party, serve this dry wine alongside heavy foods and red meats to create a memorable experience.
Tasting notes of green olives, cherries, and herbs can be found in this tannic red wine, which is substantial and powerful in its flavor. Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes are used to create the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. At your next dinner party, serve this dry wine alongside robust foods and red meats to make the meal more interesting.
Syrah, often known as Shiraz, is a dry red wine produced from grapes grown in the Rhône Valley in France. Typical aromas and flavors include traces of black cherries and plums, as well as rich and spicy undertones. With a dish of high-quality hard cheese or a burger with BBQ sauce, this flexible dry wine fits in perfectly.
This dry Burgundy-style wine contains flavors of tobacco and black cherries, as well as earthy overtones, and it is made from 100% Cabernet Sauvignon. In addition to the traditional French varietals, California and Oregon produce some of the best New World kinds available today. Preparing a picnic includes bringing along a couple bottles of Pinot Noir, which go wonderfully with a lox bagel and an avocado toast.
Ditch the Sugar With Dry Wines
Getting your head around the world of fine wine may be difficult and daunting. It’s no wonder that some individuals find the wine industry scary, given the use of terminology and adjectives that only professionals comprehend. With this explanation of what it means for a wine to be dry, we hope to have made the wine world a bit more understandable. However, while we may identify dry wines with the sensation of being dry that we receive after drinking particular varietals, dry wines are actually a sort of wine that has little to no residual sugar.
They’re a fantastic option for folks who want to indulge in wine without having to worry about additional sugars.
The pleasure derived from wine drinking is greatly enhanced by the flavor and texture of the wine.
What does it mean to describe a wine as “dry,” “sweet” or “semi-dry”?
Greetings, Dr. Vinny. What would be the name of the category of “dry, sweet, semi-dry,” and so on, in the context of categorizing wines? Would you refer to this as a “type” or a “characteristic,” or would either term suffice? • Miki F. from Glenpool, Oklahoma Greetings, Miki. All of these adjectives, such as dry, sweet, and semi-dry, relate to the amount of sweetness or residual sugar present in a wine, respectively. When all of the grape sugar is converted to alcohol during fermentation, a wine is termed “dry,” whereas a sweet wine still has some residual sugar, a wine is labeled “sweet.” “Semi-dry” or “off dry” wines contain a moderate or hardly discernible sweetness, whereas “dry” wines do not.
In addition, the term “sweet” appears to be an odd trigger word when people are talking about wine—some individuals declare they don’t like sweet wines because they believe that enjoying sweet wines would make them appear to be inexperienced in the field.
For these reasons, I find myself avoiding the phrases “sweet” and “residual sugar” wherever there is a possibility of misinterpretation.
I like to use the phrase “richness,” which conveys a positive sense of sugar and has a less negative connotation than the term “sugar.” It’s possible that you’ll use the phrase “style” while referring to this category, such as when saying “manufactured in an off-dry style.” —Vinny, the doctor
What Is Dry Wine? Our Guide To Dry Wines
Using the term “dry” to describe a wine is one of the first descriptions most of us acquire when learning how to talk about wine. However, “dry” is also one of the phrases that wine consumers misuse the most frequently. This is due to the fact that we routinely use the term “dry” in a logical manner, associating it to sensory properties of wine, despite the fact that these sensory aspects are not what we mean by the term “dry.” A dry wine is simply a wine that does not contain any residual sugar, which means that it is not sweet.
- In many wines, the winemaker interrupts the fermentation process before the yeast has had enough opportunity to consume all of the sugar, resulting in a somewhat sweet wine.
- The winemaker will instead let the fermentation process to run its course entirely, enabling the yeast to devour all of the sugar available.
- Because there is no more sugar, there is no syrupy sweetness, and the wine is thus dry.
- In a dry wine, you will still be able to taste the fruit; however, the wine will not be as sweet as it would be if it were fruit juice.
- Given the fact that many Americans are used to consuming meals with a greater sugar content than our European counterparts, many American wine consumers actually prefer wines that have at least a slight hint of sweetness to them rather than wines that are completely dry and crisp.
- If a dry wine simply refers to a wine that is not sweet, then why do so many wine consumers misinterpret the word dry wine?
- A widespread misunderstanding is that a dry wine is one that would “dry” out your tongue when consumed.
- This isn’t the case at all.
- We understand that this is confusing.
- When a wine contains high tannins, it can dry out your mouth; when a wine is “dry,” however, it cannot.
Alcohol In Dry Wines
Using the term “dry” to describe a wine is one of the first descriptions most of us acquire when learning how to talk about wine. However, “dry” is also one of the phrases that wine consumers abuse the most. The reason why the term “dry” is overused is that we usually use it logically, linking the word to sensory properties of wine, even if these sensory features are not what we mean when we claim that a wine is “dry.” A dry wine is simply a wine that does not contain any residual sugar, which means that it is not sweet in any sense.
A lot of wines are made with the fermentation process halted before the yeast has had enough time to consume all of the sugar, resulting in a little sweeter finished product than expected.
Rather of pressing the fermentation process to a close, the winemaker will let it continue until the yeast has consumed all the sugar that has been produced completely.
Don’t make the mistake of supposing that the absence of sweetness or dryness indicates the presence of fruit.
The greatest dry red wines may be found by clicking on the following link: Given the fact that many Americans are used to consuming meals with a greater sugar content than our European counterparts, many American wine consumers actually prefer wines that have at least a slight hint of sweetness to them rather than wines that are completely dry.
So, if “dry wine” simply refers to a wine that is not sweet, why do so many wine consumers misinterpret the term?” Frequently, we conflate the term “dry” with the concept of dryness in general.
Consequently, if we enjoy this experience, “dry” wines are our preferred choice.
Rather than being caused by a wine being “dry,” a wine that causes a drying feeling inside your mouth is one that is high in tannins (we go into more depth about that sensation here).
We realize this is confusing. Despite the fact that many wines that do not have a sweet flavor are also strong in tannins, these two characteristics are not the same thing. Unless a wine contains high levels of tannins, it will not dry up your mouth even when served dry.
What Does ‘Dry Red Wine’ Mean?
It’s quite clear if you’re in the wine industry to understand the phrase “dry red wine.” It refers to any red wine that does not have any detectable sweetness to it. However, whether you purchase, sell, or serve wine, you’ll quickly discover that everyone has their own idea of what is considered dry. Certain old vine Zinfandels, for example, are referred to as “grilly,” “earthy,” and “smoky” wines, and some people use the phrase to describe a wine that has no hint of fruit. Some like a youthful, brawnyCabernet Sauvignon that takes the moisture from their mouths.
In the realm of wine, the feeling is known as tannin or astringent.” If you purchase, sell, or serve wine, you’ll soon discover that everyone has their own notion of what it means to be “dry.” Vintner Some visitors to Fogcrest Vineyard’sPinot Noir are surprised by the aromas of vibrant raspberry and cherry in the wine, according to Rosalind Manoogian, the winemaker.
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- Policy Regarding Personal Information Another issue is that the word “dry” may signify a variety of things in English.
- By the 1620s, it had come to denote an area where one could not get alcoholic beverages.
- Except when it comes to Champagnes and sparkling wines, when “dry” refers to a little sweetness.
- That maze may be navigated by taking a little time to ask questions gently and clarify what the term “dry” refers to in the realm of red wine.
- The fruit tea analogy is one of her go-to examples for explaining why this happens.
- With the addition of honey, it becomes sweet and fruity.
- It contributes to the consolidation of that concept in their minds.” According to Sahi, explaining the wine’s journey from the vine to the glass is also beneficial.
- It is during the fermentation process that the yeast consumes the sugar and turns it to alcohol.
- According to Steve Millier, head of winemaking at Ironstone Vineyards, dry wine provides a number of advantages for winemakers.
The presence of a little amount of residual sweetness makes a wine more sensitive to germs.” As individuals have a greater understanding of winemaking, where tastes originate from, and the shades of difference between dry, fruity, and sweet, they will feel more confident in discussing and sampling different kinds of wine in conversation.
“I truly believe that wine should be enjoyed as a journey,” Manoogian adds. “When you teach people in this manner, you give them the ability to see that you don’t have to have a single solution.” Published on the 16th of March, 2021.
Wines Listed from Dry to Sweet (Charts)
It is possible for any wine, whether it is Riesling or Cabernet, to be dry or sweet. Check out these popular wines, which are sorted from dry to sweet. The sweetness of a wine is determined by the winemaker. Variety wines and types that are widely popular tend to have the same amount of sweetness. The sweetness of wine can range from absolutely nothing to upwards of 70% sweetness (as in a rare bottle of Spanish PX, for instance!). Because wine varies in sweetness, you’ll need to do some study to find out how much residual sugar is in a particular bottle.
(This is quite handy!) When reading a technical document, keep in mind the following:
- It is possible to have dry or sweet wines, whether it be Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon. From dry to sweet, let’s take a look at some popular wines. Succulentness is determined by the winemaker who produces it. The sweetness level of popular varietal wines and styles is usually the same. Depending on the variety of wine, sweetness can range from absolutely nothing to upwards of 70% (such as a rare bottle of Spanish PX!) In order to determine the exact residual sugar content of a certain bottle of wine, you must conduct some preliminary study. It is possible to discover the exact quantity by consulting wine tech sheets. What a fantastic resource! Reading a technical sheet should include the following steps.
The average wine consumer, by the way, cannot distinguish between sweetness levels below 1.5 percent. Isn’t that shocking? Having said that, skilled tasters can accurately estimate sweetness to within 0.2 percent of the true value — and this is completely teachable! Purchase the book and receive the course! You can enroll in the Wine 101 Course (a $50 value). With the purchase of Wine Folly: Magnum Edition, you will receive this bonus. Read on to find out more
Where does the sweetness in wine come from?
The average wine consumer, by the way, is unable to discern sweetness levels lower than 1.5 percent by volume. Yes, that is shocking. As a result of training, trained tasters can accurately estimate sweetness to within 0.2 percent of the true value – and this is something that can be taught. You can get the course if you buy the book! You can enroll in the Wine 101 Course (a $49 value). When you buy Wine Folly: Magnum Edition, you will receive a complimentary copy. Obtaining Additional Information
What Does Dry Wine Mean?
Image courtesy of Shutterstock While “dry wine” is a word that is frequently heard and used in the wine business, what precisely does it mean? Essentially, dry wine is any wine that does not have any discernible sweetness to it. The genuine answer to this question, on the other hand, is a little more complicated. The notion of what constitutes a dry wine is actually rather fluid, depending on who is drinking it and what they are looking for. Some people use the term “dry wine” to refer to a sip that leaves their mouth feeling fully devoid of moisture, while others use the term to refer to a sip that leaves their mouth feeling completely devoid of moisture.
- It is commonly understood that when people talk about “dry” wine, they are often referring to the concept of a wine that is lower in sugar and lacks enough fruit to balance out the acidity and/or tannins.
- White wines are those that are light in color.
- The presence of sweetness in a wine, paired with high levels of acidity, all contribute to the amount of dryness that a wine reaches at its conclusion.
- Wines from the Rhone Valley Because of the high concentration of tannins in red wines, they are dry.
- When ingesting red wines, they are the textural feature that “dries the mouth.” When it comes to wine, the higher the concentration of unripened tannins, the drier the wine will be.
- The presence of sugar in a red wine is, of course, another component that contributes to the dryness of the wine.
- All wine starts off as sweet grape juice, which is then fermented.
- When the yeast is able to consume all of the sugar in the wine, the fermentation process is complete and the wine is classified as dry.
- Knowing how wine is made and how various aspects influence the distinct flavors of each bottle helps us become more confident in our abilities to consume and voice our opinions on the wine we are currently enjoying.
- We wish to aid you in broadening your knowledge as well as in putting your acquired information into practice by guiding you through our selection of wines for you to drink.
Come in now and allow us to assist you in discovering your new favorite wine of preference. JJ’s Wine Bar is located at 206 East Main Street in the heart of downtown Franklin, Tennessee. Visit us in person or give us a call at 615-942-5033.
Why Do We Call It Dry Wine?
What Is the Origin of the Term “Dry Wine”? For decades, the watchword of the American wine drinker has been “anything as long as it’s dry.” This has been the case for decades. The wine industry has been scarred by a generation of wine reviewers who pushed us toward more authentic wines created in traditional styles. As a result, we’ve become conditioned to identify “dry” with “excellent” wine and “sweet” with “rotgut.” As a more educated class of wine buyers learns about the pleasures of off-dry, sweet, and semisweet wines, such as Riesling and sherry, the pendulum is beginning to swing back a little.
- All wine begins as grape juice, which contains a high concentration of natural sugars.
- Eventually, the amount of alcohol reaches a threshold where the yeast is no longer able to live, and the fermentation is terminated.
- Wines that are off-dry, semisweet, and sweet have progressively larger levels of residual sugar than wines that are dry.
- The presence of residual sugar in a wine is merely one component of the wine’s composition that determines our sense of sweetness.
- The amount of alcohol in a beverage influences our sense of sweetness as well.
For moreTASTE Food Questions,subscribe to our podcastTASTE DailyonApple PodcastsandSpotify. It’s also free to add to your Alexa flash briefings. Justadd the TASTE Daily Skill.
We call it dry wine for a reason. Throughout history, the American wine consumer has lived by the maxim “anything as long as it’s dry.” We’ve been conditioned to connect “dry” with “excellent” and “sweet” with “rotgut” because of a generation of wine reviewers who pushed us toward “genuine” wines created in historic styles, rather than “fancy.” As a more educated class of wine buyers learns about the pleasures of off-dry, sweet, and semisweet wines, such as Riesling and sherry, the pendulum is beginning to swing back a little bit.
- The phrase “dry” refers to something that is not liquid.
- Because yeast and other bacteria feed on sugar, it is possible for them to produce ethanol.
- Almost all of the sugar in the grape juice used to make the wine has been converted to alcohol in a “dry” wine.
- However, don’t confuse dry wine with being devoid of sweetness, or sweet wine with being overly sweetened with sugar.
Because it has less acid and tannins than another dry wine with the same amount of sugar, one dry wine may taste sweeter than another dry wine with the same amount of sugar Aspects of our sense of sweetness that are influenced by alcohol include: Moreover, when provided with blind tastings of different wines, most Americans, who have grown up on high-sugar diets, do not pick the driest tasting wines on the range.
In addition to writing for The New York Times, Saveur, GQ, and Grub Street at New York magazine, Max Falkowitz is a culinary and travel writer for several publications. In addition, he and Helen You are the coauthors of The Dumpling Galaxy Cookbook.
What is Dry Wine?
In addition to writing for The New York Times, Saveur, GQ, and Grub Street at New York magazine, Max Falkowitz is a culinary and travel writer for several publications. Furthermore, he and Helen You wrote The Dumpling Galaxy Cookbook together.
“Dry” is a Technical Wine Term
The phrase “dry” refers to a wine that contains a low level of residual sugar, which is a technical term. This refers to the quantity of sugar that remains after the wine has finished fermenting. The amount of sugar in the wine is determined by the type of grape that is used in the pressing and fermentation process at the winery. The sugar content of both red and white wine grapes can be low or high depending on the variety. Generally speaking, the majority of wines are dry, however some are drier than others.
The Fermentation Process of Dry Wine
There are just two components used in the production of wine: grape juice and yeast. Increases the natural sugar content of the juice (fructose). As a result, the juice begins to ferment and turn into alcohol. Dry is merely a more pleasant and concise way of stating that something has been “completely fermented.” The addition of sucrose or other sugars to wines before fermentation is permitted in some cases; however, this is entirely dependent on the type of wine being produced. In cooler climatic locations where the grapes were not mature enough, this may have been a regular procedure in the past; nevertheless, it is not something that is done to high-quality wines nowadays.
So What’s Up with that Fruity Smell?
When you linger over an open bottle or glass of wine, it is vital to remember that the fruity aroma does not necessarily indicate that the wine is not a dry wine. Remember that the term “dry” refers to a technical term, not an opinion. Here is a picture of my Aroma Wheel. It will assist you in training your nostrils so that you may appear extremely cool when attending a wine tasting. Also, make sure to check out my free Wine Type Guide, which will assist you in selecting the perfect type of wine for YOU!
Understanding the difference between Dry Vs Sweet Wines
Wine |If you have ever visited a wine store for the first time, you are aware of how difficult it may be to select a nice bottle of wine. Which type of wine do you prefer: dry or sweet? You become perplexed by the many varieties of wine available in a variety of color tints, each with a label stating whether it is a sweet or a dry wine. The issue is, what is the difference between sweet and dry wines that you should consider while making your purchasing decision? Anyone who is unfamiliar with wine will almost certainly choose the sweet wine.
Because anything sweet and dry is delicious.
The residual sugar (or lack thereof) left behind after the fermentation process is what distinguishes the two wines. This isn’t rocket science, after all. The acidity, tannins, and alcohol concentration in a glass of wine are all elements that influence the sweetness degree of the wine.
Dry Vs Sweet Wines
What is the definition of a dry wine? It is necessary for a wine to be classified as dry if it has less than 1 percent residual sugar. A wine that contains less than 0.5 percent residual sugar is referred to be ‘bone dry,’ which means that the wine has been completely devoid of all residual sweetness. With your taste senses, you can hardly feel the presence of this amount of sugar. Sweet wine, on the other hand, has a rather high residual sugar content, typically exceeding 20%. The winemaking process is comprised of the selection of grapes and the subsequent pressing of those grapes to generate juice.
Another aspect that influences the outcome of a sweet or dry wine is the variety of grapes used, as well as the stage of fermentation achieved to reduce or raise the sugar concentration.
Sweet or Dry: All Boils Down to Fermentation
The length of time spent fermenting the grape juice is the most important factor in determining whether a wine is sweet or dry. Here’s an example of how sweet or dry wine is manufactured to help you better comprehend the idea.
- When grapefruits are ripe, the quantity of sugar they contain rises. Sweet wines are produced by ripe grapes, which are more prevalent in warmer climates. A procedure that increases the sugar levels in grapes is when they are sun-dried after harvesting, which occurs in cooler climates and is used to make dry wines. When sugar is subjected to heat, it becomes more concentrated. This yields a sweet wine that is commonly used to make dessert wine. When grapes are frozen while still on the vines before being picked, the sugar content of the grapes increases, and the grapes are used to produce sweet wine. Sweet wine may also be produced sweet by adding sugar into the grape juice prior to fermentation
- Wine can also be made sweet by controlling the fermentation process. When the fermentation process is sped up, the sugar level does not drop significantly. If you want to create dry wine, fermentation should take place over a longer length of time. Fermentation is the process through which sugar is converted into alcohol. The higher the alcohol percentage, the lower the sugar levels, and this is what causes the wine to be dry.
The LCBO Sugar Code
Despite the fact that low sugar levels result in a dry wine, it is not necessary to point out that the two wines are diametrically opposed to one another. It’s more of a continuum, ranging from dry to off-dry to medium-dry to medium-sweet to sweet, and everything in between. The LCBO sugar Code, which is used to assess the quantity of residual sugar in wines, is what decides this criteria. Essentially, the code goes from extremely dry (0) to extremely sweet (1). (30). For the sake of simplicity, 0 indicates very dry, which is frequent in wines with up to 50% residual sugar, 1-2 indicates dry, 3-6 indicates medium, which can be characterized as semi-dry, semi-sweet, or off-dry.
Other Factors of Perception (Sweet or dry)
In spite of the fact that dry wines have low sugar levels, it is not necessary to point out that these two wines are diametrically opposed to one another. On a scale from dry to off-dry to medium-dry to sweet, it is a spectrum that goes from dry to off-dry to medium sweet to sweet. LCBO sugar Code, which is used to assess the quantity of residual sugar in wines, is what determines this criterion’s value. Overall, the code goes from very dry (0) to extremely sweet (1). (30). For the sake of simplicity, 0 indicates very dry, which is frequent in wines with up to 50% residual sugar, 1-2 indicates dry, 3-6 indicates medium, which can be characterized as semi-dry, semi-sweet, or off-dry, and 7-8 indicates sweet.
- Tanning: From a winemaking standpoint, tannins are the substance found in grape skin, stems, and seeds that contribute to the flavor of the wine. To further explain tannin, I would describe it as the feeling of being parched that occurs when the protein in our saliva attaches to tannin. Generally speaking, various people will have varied ideas on the tannins in wine. The amount of tannins in the wine, on the other hand, determines how dry the wine will be. Acidity: When it comes to wine, the acidity component is frequently confused with tannin. Acidity is defined by its flavor rather than by the sensation it causes in the tongue. Immature grapes have high amounts of acidity, which makes them delicious. More acidity results in a drier wine. Alcohol: As we’ve already established, alcohol is produced by the fermentation of sugar, which occurs throughout the process of fermentation. This means that the longer it is allowed to ferment, the larger the amount of alcohol it contains.
Tanning: From a winemaking viewpoint, tannins are the substance found in grape skin, stems, and seeds that contribute to the flavor and body of the wine produced. When it comes to better understanding tannin, I would describe it as the feeling of being parched that occurs when the protein in our saliva attaches to tannin. When it comes to tannins in wine, various people will usually have varied perspectives on the subject. The amount of tannins in the wine, on the other hand, determines how dry it will be.
In contrast to what you feel in your tongue, acidity is a flavor that you can taste.
Wine becomes drier as the acidity increases.
This implies that the higher the alcohol concentration, the longer it is allowed to ferment.
Examples of Classic Sweet and Dry Wines:
Tannins are the constituents of wine that include the skins, stems, and seeds of the grapes. To further explain tannin, I would describe it as the feeling of being parched that we get when the protein in our saliva attaches to tannin. Generally speaking, various people will have differing perspectives on the tannins in wine. However, the higher the concentration of tannins, the drier the wine will be. Acidity: The acidity component of wine is frequently confused with tannin. Acidity is more about the flavor than it is about the sensation you have in your tongue.
More acidity results in a drier wine; Alcohol: As we’ve already learned, alcohol is produced through the fermentation of sugar.
Examples ofSweet Wines
- Tokaji, Sauternes, Port, Riesling, Icewine/Eiswein, Vouvray, Moscato, and other sweet wines
Examples of Dry Wines
- Malbec, Merlot, Tempranillo and Sangiovese are among the grape varieties grown in the United States. Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, and Chardonnay are among the white varieties grown in the United States.
Malbec, Merlot, Tempranillo and Sangiovese are among the grape varieties grown in the United States. Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, and Chardonnay are among the white varieties grown in the United States, with Pinot Blanc and Pinot Noir being the most often planted.
One of the most perplexing notions for wine drinkers is the definition of “dry,” and what it means to drink a wine that is “dry.” Obviously, because all wines are liquids, the dryness of the wine has no relationship to the wetness of the wine. But what exactly is dry wine? What Does the Term “Dry Wine” Mean? At its most fundamental level, being dry refers to the fact that the wine has no residual sugar. The fermentation process converts the sugars in grapes into alcohol – typically, grapes have a sugar concentration of somewhere between 200 and 280 grams per liter of sugar when they are harvested, which is then transformed by yeast into alcohol, heat, and carbon dioxide during the fermentation process.
- Chilling, adding sulfur dioxide, and/or filtratration are all methods used by some winemakers to purposefully halt the fermentation process in order to retain some of the natural sugars in the wine.
- Because we, as winemakers, always have these alternatives available to us, each wine has the potential to be either fully dry or completely sweet from the beginning.
- Unfortunately, many wines on the market now actually contain a tiny amount of sugar, despite popular belief.
- Because the interaction of acidity in wine with any sugar present can have the effect of making the wine seem dry, this is a common occurrence in the winemaking industry.
- Numerous people would take a sip of Sauvignon Blanc and assume that it is dry.
- Although Sauvignon Blancs are known for their intense acidity, it is also a characteristic of the variety.
- Drinkers, on the other hand, frequently mistake the fruitiness or oakiness of some wines for sweetness when, in reality, the wine does not contain any residual sugars.
As a matter of fact, toasting the wood makes particular oak components more soluble — molecules that smell and taste like vanilla, coconut, and toasty spices, all of which are aromas we associate with sweetness.
It is far more difficult to come across a red wine that is not dry.
Despite the fact that it is less frequent to experiment with sweetness in red wines, it has the effect of smoothing out harsh tannins on the tongue and giving the wines a little more weight on the palate.
There are several wines available on the market that may be reasonably predicted to be in the off-dry to sweet range in terms of sweetness.
Furthermore, wines such as Riesling and Gewurztraminer are frequently produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry to sweet.
However, the fact is that it can be impossible to determine if a wine is actually dry or not without doing analytical tests or using a highly trained palate.
And, if this is the case, the person working at the winery, shop, or restaurant where you are purchasing the wine will be your finest source of knowledge on the subject of wine pairings.
Wines are available in a wide range of styles, from dry to sweet, and there is something to suit everyone’s taste on the market today.
Consider paying a bit more attention to the flavors you’re experiencing the next time you’re sipping on a glass of your favorite wine. In the background, can you detect a delicious undercurrent?
What Exactly Makes a “Dry” Wine Dry?
One of the most perplexing notions for wine buyers is the definition of “dry,” and what it means in terms of a wine. Obviously, because all wines are liquids, the dryness of the wine has no relationship to the wetness of the beverage. Nevertheless, what precisely is a dry wine? Do you know what it means when someone says “dry wine”? A dry wine is defined as one that contains no residual sugar at its most basic level. The fermentation process transforms the sugars in grapes into alcohol – normally, grapes have a sugar content of between 200 and 280 grams per liter of sugar when they are harvested, which is subsequently changed by yeast into alcohol, heat, and carbon dioxide throughout the fermentation process.
- Chilling, adding sulfur dioxide, and/or filtratration are all methods used by some winemakers to purposefully halt the fermentation process in order to retain some of the natural sugars in their wines.
- Given the fact that we as winemakers always have these alternatives, each wine has the potential to be created either fully dry or completely sweet from the beginning.
- Truth be told, a significant quantity of sugar is present in many wines on the market today.
- Because the interaction of acidity in wine with any sugar present can have the effect of making the wine taste dry, it is common for this to be the case.
- Upon tasting Sauvignon Blanc, many customers might believe that it is dry.
- Sauvignon Blancs, on the other hand, are characterized by having a high acidity level.
- When it comes to some wines, however, consumers frequently mistakenly interpret the fruitiness or oakiness as sweetness, even when the wine contains no residual sugar.
Certain oak components become soluble after being toasted, and these compounds have smells and aromas that resemble vanilla, coconut, and toasty spices; sensations that we associate with sweetness.
Obtaining a red wine that is not dry is considerably harder to come by these days.
However, while experimenting with sweetness in red wines is less prevalent than in white wines, it has been shown to have the effect of smoothing out harsh tannins on the tongue and giving the wines a little more weight.
Wines that may be fairly predicted to be in the off-dry to sweet range are available on the market in limited quantities.
In addition, wines such as Riesling and Gewurztraminer are frequently produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry to sweet.
However, the fact is that without analytical testing or a highly trained taste, it can be impossible to determine whether a wine is actually dry or not.
And, if this is the case, the person working at the vineyard, shop, or restaurant where you are purchasing the wine will be your finest source of knowledge on the subject of wine tasting notes.
Wines are available in a wide range of styles, from dry to sweet, and there is something for everyone on the market today.
Consider paying a bit more attention to the flavors you’re experiencing the next time you’re sipping on a glass of your favorite beverage. If I listen closely, I can detect a trace of sweetness.
What is “dry” wine?
Steven Baboun is a writer who lives in New York City. Dry wine is an unduly complicated word that simply refers to wine that is not sweet. This is due to the fact that there are no residual sugars in the wine to impart a sweet flavor to it. But how does this come about? It’s actually rather straightforward. Wine begins as grape juice and becomes alcoholic when the juice ferments, which occurs when the yeast consumes the sugar that was already present in the grape juice at the time of fermentation.
This is referred to as residual sugar.
The yeast has consumed all of the sugars in the grape juice, and there are no sugars left in the wine, resulting in a wine that is not sweet.
Okay, so is dry wine the kind that makes my mouth pucker?
Devon Carlson is an American football player who plays for the University of Texas at Austin. In a nutshell, no. Drinking wine is not associated with any particular sensory features, thus the name ‘dry’. When you drink a wine with a high concentration of tannins, your mouth feels strange and puckery. Although a dry wine, such as many classic reds, has a higher concentration of tannins than a sweet wine, this does not imply that the two are always compatible.
How do I find out if I like dry wine?
Devon Carlson is an American football player who plays for the University of Texas at Austin in the National Football League. A categorical refusal is the only option. Drinking wine is not associated with any particular sensory features, hence the name ‘dry.’ When you consume wine that is heavy in tannins, your mouth feels odd and puckery. Dry wines, like many traditional reds, may have a greater tannin content than sweeter wines, but this does not imply that they should always be served together.
The Difference Between Dry Wine and Sweet Wine • Winetraveler
During a deductive wine tasting, one of the first things a sommelier strives to discover is the sweetness level of the wine he or she is drinking. A wine is normally classified into one of two categories: dry or sweet. This is the most fundamental level of categorization. Sweet wines are defined as those that have a significant quantity of residual sugar after fermentation has taken place. Dry wines are those that have just a small amount of residual sugar remaining after fermentation has finished.
Many elements influence the gradation of a wine’s sweetness or dryness – as well as our impression of the wine’s sweetness or dryness.
The first step toward fully comprehending this notion is to shift away from relying just on what our taste receptors perceive as sweet and instead attempt to comprehend more fully what goes into a wine to give it its perceived flavor.
- Wine harvesting, terroir, fermentation techniques, taste perception, examples of sweet wines, examples of dry wines, and more are all covered in this section of the course.
While winemakers throughout the world use a variety of techniques to alter a wine’s sugar level, we’ll go over the most prevalent ones in this article.
RELATED:Step-by-Step Guide to Tasting Wine Like a Sommelier
Common Factors That Make a Wine Sweet or Dry
Grapes that are not yet ripe (mature) have a lower sugar content than grapes that are ripe (mature). In addition, mature grapes have lower amounts of acidity than unripe grapes, which might have an impact on the flavor. Vintners who want to make a dry wine may frequently select their grapes before they are fully matured in order to achieve a specific amount of acidity and lower levels of residual sugar when fermentation is completed.
Warmer areas tend to have a greater sugar concentration in grapes, whereas cooler temperatures tend to have a lower sugar content. The warmth of the sun increases the concentration of sugar in the grapes’ water, which results in a sweeter tasting fruit.
What’s Done with the Grapes Following the Harvest
To increase the sweetness of their wines, winemakers may choose to dry their fruit in direct sunlight for a short period of time. The concentration of sugar present is increased as a result of this approach. However, winemakers in milder areas might let the grapes to remain on the vines until they are frozen, allowing them to produce more wine. It is expected that when the grapes are picked, their water would have a higher percentage of sugar than when they were planted.
Controlling the period of fermentation is one of the most effective methods to impact the sweetness or dryness of a wine’s sweetness or dryness. In general, basic chemistry indicates that sugar is transformed into alcohol by a series of chemical reactions that occur over time. During fermentation, sugars decompose into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, respectively. An organism known as yeast is responsible for the facilitation of this process. The longer a wine is left to ferment, the drier the finished wine product will be in terms of texture.
Factors That Affect What We Perceive as Sweet or Dry
It can be difficult for the unskilled wine taster to tell the difference between sweet wine and fruity-styled wines, especially when they are paired together. In the case of a wide range of red and white wines, this can be difficult to identify. As you will see in the next section, there are many subtle differences between sweet and dry wines that we should be aware of while tasting them. Tannins: When it comes to wine, tannins are found in the skins, seeds, and stems of grapes, among other places.
- The intensity of this sensation varies from person to person, but generally speaking, the higher the concentration of tannins in a wine, the drier it will appear.
- Aspect of wine that is sometimes misunderstood with tannins is acidity.
- High amounts of acidity are seen in grapes that are not fully developed.
- Alcohol: We spoke about how sugar is eventually turned into an alcoholic beverage.
Out of the three components that influence human perception, alcohol is the only one that has a significant impact on determining whether a wine may be categorized as sweet or dry in nature.
Popular Sweet and Dry Wines
While certain grape types can be sweet, dry (such as Riesling), or off-dry, we’ve compiled a list of some notable varietals that are typically classed as sweetordry in the table below.
Examples of Classically Sweet Wines
- Port, Riesling, Muscato, Icewine/Eiswein, Vouvray, Sauternes, Tokaji, and more varieties are available.
IN CONNECTION WITH:11 Delectable Facts About Port and Fortified Wine
Examples of Classically Dry Wines
- Pinot Noir, Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, Sangiovese, Pinot Grigio, Pinot Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay
- These are only a few of the varieties available.
“What Is the Difference Between Dry Wine and Sweet Wine?” is what you’re reading right now. Getting Back to the Top of the Page What does dry wine taste like? Wine tasting, wine education, wine sweetness : what it takes to taste wine like a pro Please consider joining the Winetraveler Discord Server and Facebook Group to communicate with other Winetravelers and for inspiration on wine travel adventures across the world.
What Is the Driest Wine?
June 25, 2020 |wine |Pacific Rim”Dry” is a term that is frequently used to describe wines, although it may be difficult to understand. In some cases, it can be used to indicate that the wine “feels” dry in the mouth or that it will, in fact, dry the mouth out. This is absolutely not the case! A dry wine is one that does not contain any residual sugar, and so is not sweet. You may wish to review a white and red wine sweetness chart to verify that you are purchasing the driest white wine or driest red wine that will suit your palate.
- In certain cases, winemakers will halt this process before the yeast can finish its feast, depending on the variety.
- To make a very broad generalization, most Americans are accustomed to a diet that contains far more sugar than their counterparts in other areas of the world.
- Fortunately, there are selections available across the spectrum.
- There’s a mineral flavor to this bone-dry French wine, as well as citrus notes in the aroma.
- Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Viognier, Torrontes, Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Moscato, White Port, and Ice Wine are some of the varieties available.
For dry reds, try the following:
- To pair with dry reds, try these suggestions.
A wonderful white and red wine sweetness chart may be found at Wine Folly, along with a variety of different varieties to sample. To try something drier, consider Natura’s Cabernet Sauvignon or one of our Rainstorm Pinot Noir or Pinot Gris wines (also available). Despite the fact that they are not the driest of the dry, they do provide a pleasant introduction to this realm. Please share your thoughts with us!
What Makes a Wine ‘Dry?’
All of the goods that appear on this page have been hand-picked by our editors. If you make a purchase after clicking on one of our retail links, we may get a commission. If you are a self-proclaimed wine enthusiast, it is probable that you have used the phrase “dry” to describe what you are searching for to an abartender, sommelier, or wine merchant while describing what you are seeking for. Somehow, this phrase has become a default description that is less concerned with the wine you are looking for and more concerned with the need to convey that you have refined taste.
- You’re under pressure right now, and you don’t want to be perceived as a clueless rube who enjoys a wine that isn’t dry.
- Wine is a kind of liquid.
- Doesn’t the thought of a racySancermake you salivate?
- Isn’t a strong, juicy malbec going to relieve your thirst when you’re drinking it with a hamburger?
What makes anything like that “dry” in the first place? Finally, it’s time to figure out what exactly makes a wine dry, as well as some more wine adjectives you can use to help you zero in on the important features of a wine you truly enjoy.
Sweet and Sour
Shutterstock According to my observations, the vast majority of the time when people use the word “dry,” they are referring to anything that is “not sweet,” which is right by definition. To put it another way, fermentation is the process by which sugar is converted to alcohol, and the grape juice that goes into the vat is truly sweet to begin with. But here’s the thing: the vast majority of table wines are fermented to complete dryness, which means that there will be little to no residual sugar left in your bottle at the conclusion of the process.
Like, entirely devoid of moisture.
There are wines that are designed to be purposely sweet, primarily dessert wines, as well as wines that are made to have a little amount of residual sugar, which are referred to as “off-dry.” Dessert wines are the most common type of off-dry wine.
A small amount of sugar is left over during fermentation to help balance what would otherwise be a wine that was borderline harsh.
Scratch and Sniff
Shutterstock The majority of the time, in my experience, people use the term “dry” to refer to anything that is “not sweet,” which is right according to the definition. To put it another way, fermentation is the process by which sugar is converted into alcohol, and the grape juice that goes into the vat is initially rather sweet. What’s more, most table wines are fermented to complete dryness, which means that there is little to no residual sugar left in the bottle at the conclusion of the process.
Dry as in “nothing at all.” In most cases, unless you’re looking at a list of dessert wines, when you ask for something “dry” from a list of wines, you’re only excluding a very tiny proportion of the options available due to their sugar level.
There are other wines that have been made with a small amount of residual sugar, which are frequently referred to as “sweet.” Such grapes like riesling and chenin blanc, which flourish in cold locations and have extraordinarily high acidity, are frequently used in this way.
Nevertheless, the operative term here is “balanced.” If all you’ve ever tasted of riesling is cheap, sugary varieties, get thee to a wine store and get thyself a bottle of high-quality German Mosel riesling, and prepare to have your mind blown by the wine’s bracing, sweet-vs-tart balance.
Shutterstock When attempting to comprehend what people perceive as dryness in a wine, it is important to consider the fruit character or fruit tastes present in the wine. Wine grapes grow in a relatively small region of latitude, both above and below the equator, where the climate is just suitable for moderate heat and a long ripening process to take place. However, even within that tight band, there is a vast variety of climatic variation and soil type, and not all wines express themselves in the same way when it comes to fruit quality.
- The grapes are the same, but the wine is radically different.
- (As a result, they have a somewhat greater alcohol content as a result).
- Argentinian malbec, California zinfandel, and Chilean merlot are all full-bodied, dry red wines that retain a hint of fruitiness while being dry.
- When it comes to wine, structure denotes a perfect balance between tannin, acidity, and alcohol in which fruit takes a backseat.
A Barrel of Buttered Popcorn
Finally, whether or not a wine is allowed to contact with wood throughout the winemaking process may impart a characteristic roundness to the finished product. Despite the fact that most red wines spend time in oak barrels, their powerful flavors and tannins tend to eclipse the influence of the barrels. White wines that are frequently exposed to oak, like as chardonnay, may burst forth with rich, creamy, buttery characteristics that are nearly to the point of resembling buttered popcorn or sunblock.
Alternatively, wines stored in stainless steel or cement have a cleaner, more linear mouthfeel; nonetheless, this does not imply dryness, but rather a lack of oakiness.
If you want creamy whites, “rich” is an excellent word to use, while “linear” or “mineral” are suitable words to use if you prefer their opposites.
The greatest way to learn about wine is to study it.
Here’s some homework: Tryone new wine every month, or sign up fora custom wine subscription service.
Shutterstock provided the image for the header. The work of Pamela Vachon, an Astoria, New York-based freelance writer, has featured on several websites, including CNET, Cheese Professor, Alcohol Professor, and Diced.
She is also a licensed sommelier, a voiceover artist, and a passionate enthusiast of all things pickled or fermented, to name a few things. See more articles on this topic. Comments to be loaded
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